Arizona

Arizona Administrative Code:

R7-2-302.02. Minimum Course of Study and Competency Requirements for Graduation from High School Beginning with the Graduation Class of 2013. “(1) Subject area course requirements. (b) Three credits in social studies to include the following: (i) One credit of American history, including Arizona history; (ii) One credit of world history/geography; (iii) One-half credit of American government, including Arizona government; and (iv) One-half credit of economics.”

R7-2-302.04. Minimum Course of Study and Competency Requirements for Graduation from High School. “(1) Subject area course requirements. (a) The awarding of a credit toward the completion of high school graduation requirements shall be based on successful completion of the subject area requirements prescribed by the State Board and local governing board as follows: (ii) One and one-half credits in instruction in the essentials, sources and history of the constitutions of the United States and Arizona and instruction in American institutions and ideals and in the history of Arizona.”

Arizona State Legislature Instruction: 

ARS 15-710. Instruction in state and federal constitutions, American institutions and history of Arizona: “All schools shall give instruction in the essentials, sources and history of the Constitutions of the United States and Arizona and instruction in American institutions and ideals and in the history of Arizona, including the history of Native Americans in Arizona. The instruction shall be given in accordance with the state course of study for at least one year of the common school grades and high school grades respectively.”

 

Arizona Academic Content Standards

Arizona Academic Content Social Studies Standard Strand 3 – Civics/Government:

“The goal of the civics strand is to develop the requisite knowledge and skills for informed, responsible participation in public life; to ensure, through instruction, that students understand the essentials, source, and history of the constitutions of the United States and Arizona, American institutions and ideals (ARS 15-710). Students will understand the foundations, principles, and institutional practices of the United States as a representative democracy and constitutional republic. They will understand the importance of each person as an individual with human and civil rights and our shared heritage in the United States. Students will understand politics, government, and the responsibilities of good citizenship. Citizenship skills include the capacity to influence policies and decisions by clearly communicating interests and the ability to build coalitions through negotiation, compromise, and consensus. In addition, students will learn that the United States influences and is influenced by global interaction.” (Adopted by State Board of Education 9/26/05 and updated 5/22/06)

Kindergarten

  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Recognize national symbols and monuments that represent American democracy and values:
        • American flag
        • Bald Eagle
        • Statue of Liberty
        • White House
      • PO 2.  Recognize the Pledge of Allegiance and the National Anthem.
      • PO 3.  Recognize the significance of national holidays:
        • Thanksgiving
        • Presidents’ Day
        • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
        • Constitution Day
      • PO 4.  Identify Presidents George Washington and Abraham Lincoln as leaders of our democracy.
      • PO 5.  Recognize that classmates have varied backgrounds but may share principles, goals, customs, and traditions.
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1.  Identify the current President of the United States and Governor of Arizona.
    • Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship.
      • PO 1.  Identify examples of responsible citizenship in the school setting and in stories about the past and present.
      • PO 2.  Recognize the rights and responsibilities of citizenship:
        • Elements of fair play, good sportsmanship, and the idea of treating others the way you want to be treated.
        • Importance of participation and cooperation in a classroom and community.
        • Why there are rules and the consequences for violating them.
        • Responsibility of voting (every vote counts).
      • PO 3.  Discuss the importance of students contributing to a community (e.g., helping others, working together, cleaning up the playground).
      • PO 4.  Identify people who keep communities and citizens safe.

Grade 1

  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Identify national symbols and monuments that represent American democracy and values:
        • American flag
        • Bald Eagle
        • Statue of Liberty
        • White House
        • Washington Monument
      • PO 2.  Recognize the Pledge of Allegiance and the National Anthem.
        PO 3.  Practice examples of democracy in action (e.g., voting, making classroom rules).
        PO 4.  Recognize how students work together to achieve common goals.
        PO 5.  Discuss the significance of national holidays:

        • Thanksgiving
        • Presidents’ Day
        • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
        • Fourth of July
        • Constitution Day
      • PO 6.  Recognize state symbols of Arizona (e.g., bird, flower, tree, flag).
      • PO 7.  Recognize that people in Arizona and the United States have varied backgrounds, but may share principles, goals, customs, and traditions

Grade 2

  • Strand 1: American History
    • Concept 4: Revolution and New Nation
      • PO 1.  Recognize that American colonists and Native American groups lived in the area of the Thirteen Colonies that was ruled by England.
      • PO 2.  Recognize dissatisfaction with England’s rule was a key issue that led to the Revolutionary War.
      • PO 3.  Describe how the colonists demonstrated their discontent with British Rule (e.g., Boston Tea Party, Declaration of Independence, Paul Revere’s Ride, battles of Lexington and Concord).
      • PO 4.  Discuss contributions of key people (e.g., George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin) in gaining independence during the Revolutionary War.
      • PO 5.  Know that the United States became an independent country as a result of the Revolutionary War.
      • PO 6.  Discuss how the need for a strong central government led to the writing of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe the history and meaning of national symbols, documents, songs, and monuments that represent American democracy and values:
        • American flag
        • Pledge of Allegiance
        • National Anthem
        • America the Beautiful
        • the U.S. Capitol
        • Liberty Bell
      • PO 2.  Recognize that the U.S. Constitution provides the American people with common laws and protects their rights.
        PO 3.  Describe the significance of national holidays:

        • Presidents’ Day
        • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
        • Veterans’ Day
        • Memorial Day
        • Fourth of July
        • Constitution Day
      • PO 4.  Know that people in the United States have varied backgrounds but may share principles, goals, customs and traditions.
        PO 5.  Recognize how students work together to achieve common goals.
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1.  Identify the three branches of national government as represented by the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court.
      • PO 2.  Identify current political leaders of the state and nation:
        • President of the United States
        • Governor of Arizona
        • local leaders (e.g., tribal council, mayor)
      • PO 3.  Recognize how Arizona and the other states combine to make a nation.
    • Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
      • PO 1.  Discuss examples of responsible citizenship in the school setting and in stories about the past and present.
      • PO 2.  Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizenship:
        • elements of fair play, good sportsmanship, and the idea of treating others the way you want to be treated
        • importance of participation and cooperation in a classroom and community
        • why we have rules and the consequences for violating them
        • responsibility of voting
      • PO 3.  Describe the importance of students contributing to a community (e.g., helping others, working together, service projects).
      • PO 4.  Identify traits of character (e.g., honesty, courage, cooperation and patriotism) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.

Grade 3

  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe national symbols and monuments that represent American democracy and values:
        • Statue of Liberty
        • Ellis Island
        • Lincoln Memorial
        • the U. S. Capitol
      • PO 2.   Recognize that people in the United States have varied backgrounds but may share principles, goals, customs and traditions.
      • PO 3.  Describe how people in the community and state work together to achieve common goals.
      • PO 4.  Describe the significance of national holidays:
        • Presidents’ Day
        • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
        • Veterans’ Day
        • Memorial Day
        • Constitution Day
        • Labor Day
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1.  Discuss the three branches of state and national government:
        • Executive
        • Legislative
        • Judicial
      • PO 2.  Recognize that there are different levels of government (e.g., local, tribal, county, state, national).
    • Concept 3: Functions of Government
      • PO 1.  Identify the basic concept of how laws are made (e.g., law proposed, discussed, amended, voted on).
    • Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
      • PO 1.  Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizenship:
        • good sportsmanship
        • participation and cooperation
        • rules and consequences
        • voting
      • PO 2.  Describe the importance of students contributing to a community (e.g., service projects, cooperating, volunteering).
      • PO 3.  Identify traits of character (e.g., honesty, courage, cooperation, respect, trustworthiness, responsibility, citizenship) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.

Grade 4

  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe state and national symbols and monuments that represent American democracy and values:
        • Great Seal of the United States
        • Arizona symbols (e.g., seal, flag)
        • war memorials (e.g., Pearl Harbor- Arizona Memorial, WW II, Korean, and Vietnam Memorials)
      • PO 2.  Identify the rights and freedoms supported by the following documents:
        • Preamble of the U.S. Constitution
        • Bill of Rights
        • Statement of Natural Rights as found in the Declaration of Independence (We hold these truths to be self evident……….)
      • PO 3.  Describe Arizona’s transition from territory to statehood:
        • locations of capital
        • founding people
        • Arizona’s constitution
      • PO 4.  Describe the varied backgrounds of people living in Arizona:
        • shared principles, goals, customs and traditions
        • diversity in one’s school and community
        • benefits and challenges of a diverse population.
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1 Describe the three branches of state and national government:
        • Executive
        • Legislative
        • Judicial
      • PO 2.  Describe different levels of government (e.g., local, tribal, state, national).
        • Concept 3: Functions of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe the responsibilities of state government (e.g., making laws, enforcing laws, collecting taxes).
      • PO 2.  Describe the responsibilities (e.g., determining land use, enforcing laws, overlapping responsibilities with state government) of the local government.
      • PO 3.  Describe the possible consequences of violating laws.
    • Concept 4:  Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of  Citizenship
      • PO 1. Discuss ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.
      • PO 2.  Identify traits of character (e.g., responsibility, respect, perseverance, loyalty, integrity, involvement, justice and tolerance) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.
      • PO 3.  Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, campaigning, civil and community service, volunteering, jury duty).

Grade 5

  • Strand 1: American History
    • Concept 4: Revolution and New Nation
      • PO 1.  Describe the significance of the following events leading to the American Revolution:
        • French and Indian War
        • Proclamation of 1763
        • Tea Act
        • Stamp Act
        • Boston Massacre
        • Intolerable Acts
      • PO 2.  Describe the significance of the following events in the Revolutionary War:
        • Declaration of Independence
        • the battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga
        • aid from France
        • surrender at Yorktown
      • PO 3.  Identify the impact of the following individuals on the Revolutionary War:
        • Benjamin Franklin
        • Thomas Jefferson
        • George Washington
        • Patrick Henry
        • Thomas Paine
        • King George III
      • PO 4.  Describe how one nation evolved from thirteen colonies through the following events:
        • Constitutional Convention
        • George Washington’s presidency
        • creation of political parties
  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Identify the democratic principles and ideals associated with the following documents:
        • Mayflower Compact
        • Declaration of Independence
        • Articles of Confederation
        • United States Constitution
        • Bill of Rights
      • PO 2.  Recognize the contributions and roles of the following individuals in creating the American government:
        • John Adams
        • Benjamin Franklin
        • Alexander Hamilton
        • Thomas Jefferson
        • James Madison
        • John Marshall
        • George Washington
      • PO 3.  Describe the struggle between the Federalists and the Anti-federalists over the ratification of the Constitution and the creation of the Bill of Rights.
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe the role of town meetings and representative assemblies in colonial government.
        PO 2.  Describe how the Constitution is designed to limit central government, as in freedom from a controlling monarchy.
    • Concept 3: Functions of Government
      • PO 1.  Explain ways in which the powers of the federal government differed from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution.
      • PO 2.  Identify the process by which a bill becomes a law.
      • PO 3.  Describe how the checks and balance system which established the three branches of the federal government works, as in Andrew Johnson’s impeachment.
      • PO 4.  Explain the significance of the Dred Scott Decision.
      • PO 5.  Compare the arguments for states’ rights versus the power of the federal government (e.g., the expansion of slavery, taxation).
    • Concept 4:  Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of  Citizenship
      • PO 1.  Describe ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.
      • PO 2. Describe the character traits (i.e., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States.
      • PO 3. Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).
    • Concept 5:Government Systems of the  World
      • PO 1.  Describe the characteristics of a monarchy and a republic.

Grade 6

  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Discuss the important ideas of the Enlightenment Period (e.g., Natural Rights, separation of powers, religious freedom) that fostered the creation of the United States government.
    • Concept 3: Functions of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe the impact of the Laws of Hammurabi on the lives of ancient people and how it relates to current laws.
      • PO 2.  Describe the impact of the Greek democracy on ancient Greeks and how it relates to current forms of government.
      • PO 3.  Describe the impact of the Roman republic on ancient Romans and how it relates to current forms of government.
    • Concept 4:  Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of  Citizenship
      • PO 1.  Describe ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.
      • PO 2.  Discuss the character traits (i.e., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States.
      • PO 3. Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).
    • Concept 5: Government Systems of the World
      • PO 1.  Describe the structure of the following governments:
        • theocracy
        • dictatorship
        • republic
        • monarchy
        • democracy
        • anarchy

Grade 7

  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Analyze the significance of the principles and ideals of the following documents:
        • Bill of Rights (as related to specific time periods)
        • Emancipation Proclamation
      • PO 2.   Analyze Arizona’s transition from territory to statehood:
        • locations of capital
        • founding people
        • Arizona’s constitution
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe how the powers of checks and balances are used in the following:
        • impeachment
        • declaring war
        • treaties
        • veto
        • judicial review
    • Concept 3: Functions of Government
      • PO 1. Analyze the significance of the following judicial decisions:
        • Dred Scott
        • Plessy v. Ferguson
        • Scopes Trial
      • PO 2.  Identify the government’s role in progressive reforms (e.g., women’s suffrage, labor unions, temperance movement, civil rights).
    • Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
      • PO 1.  Describe the benefits of community service.
      • PO 2.  Discuss the character traits (e.g., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States.
      • PO 3.  Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (i.e., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).
        PO 4. Explain the obligations and responsibilities of citizenship:

        • upholding the Constitution
        • obeying the law
        • paying taxes
        • registering for selective service
        • jury duty
      • PO 5.  Describe the impact of Constitutional Amendments and laws (i.e., Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twenty-first Amendments, Jim Crow Laws, Black Codes, Dawes Act) that came about during the historical time periods studied.
    • Concept 5: Government Systems of the World
      • PO 1.  Discuss how negotiations with foreign governments have led to the development of foreign policy initiatives (e.g., Treaty of Versailles, Fourteen Points, League of Nations).
      • PO 2.  Compare different types of governments:
        • dictatorship
        • totalitarian
        • monarchies

Grade 8

  • Strand 1: American History
    • Concept 4: Revolution and New Nation
      • PO 1.  Analyze the following events which led to the American Revolution:
        • Tea Act
        • Stamp Act
        • Boston Massacre
        • Intolerable Acts
        • Declaration of Independence
      • PO 2.  Describe the significance of key events of the Revolutionary War:
        • major battles (e.g., Lexington, Saratoga, Trenton)
        • aid from France
        • surrender at Yorktown
      • PO 3.War: Describe the impact of the following key individuals on the Revolutionary
        • Benjamin Franklin
        • Thomas Jefferson
        • George Washington
        • Patrick Henry
        • Thomas Paine
      • PO 4. King George III: Describe the significance of the following documents:
        • Declaration of Independence
        • Articles of Confederation
        • Constitution
      • PO 5. Bill of Rights Explain the influence of the following individuals in the establishment of a new government:
        • Thomas Jefferson
        • James Madison
        • John Adams
        • Benjamin Franklin
      • PO 6.  Describe how one nation evolved from thirteen colonies:
        • Constitutional Convention
        • George Washington’s presidency
        • creation of political parties (e.g., Federalists, Whigs, Democratic- Republicans)
  • Strand 3: Civics/Government
    • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe how the following philosophies and documents influenced the creation of the Constitution:
        • Magna Carta
        • English Bill of Rights
        • Montesquieu’s separation of power
        • John Locke’s theories – natural law, social contract
        • Mayflower Compact
        • Declaration of Independence
        • Articles of Confederation
      • PO 2.  Analyze the purpose (e.g., weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation) and outcome (e.g., compromises) of the Constitutional Convention.
      • PO 3. Analyze the struggle (e.g., Federalists’ Papers, Bill of Rights) between the federalists and the anti-federalists over the ratification of the Constitution.
    • Concept 2: Structure of Government
      • PO 1.  Describe the following principles on which the Constitution (as the Supreme Law of the Land) was founded:
        • federalism (i.e., enumerated, reserved, and concurrent powers)
        • popular sovereignty
        • Separation of Powers
        • checks and balances
        • limited government
        • flexibility (i.e., Elastic Clause, amendment process)
      • PO 2.  Differentiate the roles and powers of the three branches of the federal government.
      • PO 3.  Explain the electoral process (e.g., primary and general elections, electoral college).
      • PO 4.  Explain how a candidate can be elected president (e.g., Adams-Jackson, Hayes-Tilden, Bush-Gore) without receiving a majority of popular vote.
      • PO 5.  Describe the line of succession to the presidency as stated in the 25th Amendment.
    • Concept 3: Functions of Government
      • PO 1.  Compare the ways the federal and Arizona governments operate:
        • three branches
        • Constitution
        • election process (e.g., congressional and legislative districts, propositions, voter registration)
      • PO 2.  Compare the process of how a bill becomes a law at the federal and state level.
      • PO 3.  Describe the following forms of direct democracy in Arizona:
        • initiative
        • referendum
        • recall process
      • PO 4.  Compare the roles and relationships of different levels of government (e.g., federal, state, county, city/town, tribal).
      • PO 5.  Describe the significance of the Amendments to the Constitution.
      • PO 6.  Compare the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems.
      • PO 7.  Summarize the significance of the following Supreme Court cases:
        • Marbury v. Madison
        • Plessy v. Ferguson
        • Brown v. Board of Education
        • Gideon v. Wainright
        • Miranda v. Arizona
        • Korematsu v. United States
      • PO 8.  Describe the impact of the following executive orders and decisions:
        • Executive Order 9066 – creation of internment camps on U.S. soil
        • Manhattan Project
        • use of Atomic Bomb
      • PO 9.   Describe the impact that the following Acts had on increasing the rights of groups and individuals:
        • Civil Rights Act of 1964
        • Voting Rights Act of 1965
        • Indian Rights Act of 1968
        • Americans with Disabilities Act
        • Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
      • PO 1.  Describe the benefits of community service.
      • PO 2.  Discuss the character traits (e.g., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States.
      • PO 3.  Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (i.e., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).
      • PO 4. Explain the obligations and responsibilities of citizenship:
        • upholding the Constitution
        • obeying the law
        • paying taxes
        • registering for selective service
        • jury duty
      • PO 5.  Describe the impact that the following had on rights for individuals and groups:
        • Jim Crow Laws – literacy test, poll taxes, Grandfather Clause
        • Civil Rights Movement (i.e., Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks)
        • desegregation – military, schools, transportation, sports
        • United Farm Workers (i.e., César Chavez)
        • National Organization for Women (NOW) – Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

Grades 9-12

  • Strand 1: American History
    • Concept 4: Revolution and New Nation
      • PO 1.  Assess the economic, political, and social reasons for the American Revolution:
        • British attempts to tax and regulate colonial trade as a result of the French and Indian War
        • colonists’ reaction to British policy ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence
      • PO 2.  Analyze the effects of European involvement in the American Revolution on the outcome of the war.
        PO 3.  Describe the significance of major events in the Revolutionary War:

          • Lexington and Concord
          • Bunker Hill
          • Saratoga
          • writing and ratification of the Declaration of Independence
          • Yorktown
        • PO 4.  Analyze how the new national government was created:
          • Albany Plan of Union influenced by the Iroquois Confederation
          • Articles of Confederation
          • Constitutional Convention
          • struggles over ratification of the Constitution
          • creation of the Bill of Rights
        • PO 5.  Examine the significance of the following in the formation of a new nation:
          • presidency of George Washington
          • economic policies of Alexander Hamilton
          • creation of political parties under Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
          • the establishment of the Supreme Court as a co-equal third branch of government under John Marshall with cases such as Marbury v. Madison.
        • PO 6.  Examine the experiences and perspectives of the following groups in the new nation:
          • property owners
          • African Americans
          • women
          • Native Americans
          • indentured servants
    • Concept 6: Civil War and Reconstruction
        • PO 1.  Explain the economic, social, and political causes of the Civil War:
          • economic and social differences between the North, South, and West
          • balance of power in the Senate (e.g., Missouri and 1850 Compromises)
          • extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott Decision, the Kansas-Nebraska Act)
          • role of abolitionists (e.g., Frederick Douglass and John Brown)
          • debate over popular sovereignty/states rights
          • Presidential election of 1860
        • PO 2.  Analyze aspects of the Civil War:
          • changes in technology
          • importance of resources
          • turning points
          • military and civilian leaders
          • effect of the Emancipation Proclamation
        • PO 3.  Analyze immediate and long term effects of Reconstruction in post Civil War America:
          • various plans for reconstruction of the South
          • Lincoln’s assassination
            • Johnson’s impeachment
            • Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
            • resistance to and end of Reconstruction (e.g., Jim Crow laws, KKK, Compromise of 1877)
    • Strand 3: Civics/Government
      • Concept 1: Foundations of Government
        • PO 1.  Examine the foundations of democratic representative government:
          • Greek direct democracy
          • Roman republic
        • PO 2.  Trace the English roots of American democracy:
          • Magna Carta
          • English Bill of Rights
          • Representative government – Parliament, colonial assemblies, town meetings
        • PO 3.   Describe the philosophical roots of American Democracy:
          • moral and ethical ideals from Judeo-Christian tradition
          • John Locke and social contract
          • Charles de Montesquieu and separation of powers
        • PO 4.  Examine the fundamental principles (e.g., equality, natural rights of man, rule of law) in the Declaration of Independence.
          • Concept 2: Structure of Government
        • PO 1.  Analyze why the weak central government and limited powers of the Articles of Confederation demonstrated the need for the Constitution.
        • PO 2.  Analyze the creation of United States Constitution:
          • Representative government as developed by the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise
          • Federalism
          • Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances
          • Judicial Review
          • Amendment Process
        • PO 3.  Examine the United States federal system of government:
          • powers of the national government
          • powers of the state governments
          • powers of the people
        • PO 4.  Describe the steps leading to the adoption of the Constitution:
          • Federalist and Anti-Federalist positions (e.g., The Federalist Papers)
          • Bill of Rights
          • ratification
        • PO 5.  Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the legislative branch of the United States:
          • specific powers delegated in Article I of the Constitution
          • role of competing factions and development of political parties
            • lawmaking process
            • different roles of Senate and House
            • election process and types of representation
            • influence of staff, lobbyists, special interest groups and political action committees (PACs)
        • PO 6.  Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the executive branch of the United States government:
          • specific powers delegated in Article II of the Constitution
          • roles and duties of the president
          • development and function of the executive branch, including the cabinet and federal bureaucracy
          • election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions, and electoral college
        • PO 7.  Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the judicial branch of the United States government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions:
          • specific powers delegated by the Constitution in Article III
          • judicial review developed in Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden
          • dual court system of state and federal courts
        • PO 8.  Analyze the structure, power, and organization of Arizona’s government as expressed in the Arizona Constitution:
          • direct democracy by initiative, referendum, and recall processes
          • election process such as redistricting, (e.g., gerrymandering, clean elections), voter registration, and primaries
          • the structure and processes of Arizona’s legislature
          • the roles of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction
          • appointment and continuing election of judges.
        • PO 9.  Analyze the forms, structure, powers and roles of local government:
          • county government, boards of supervisors, sheriffs, county attorneys, and others
          • mayor, council, city manager, and other city officials
          • issues of large urban area governments (e.g., transportation, zoning growth management and funding, urban planning, water and sanitation, pollution, annexation)
          • special districts, governance funding and purpose (e.g., school, sanitation, water, fire, library, community college)
        • PO 10.  Examine the sovereignty of tribal governments and their relationship to state and federal governments (e.g., jurisdiction, land use, water and mineral rights, gaming pacts).
          PO 11.  Identify other forms of government under U.S. federal auspices (e.g., protectorates, territories, federal districts).
      • Concept 3: Functions of Government
        • PO 1.  Analyze the functions of government as defined in the Preamble to the Constitution.
          PO 2.  Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments.

          • Constitutional mandates (e.g., the right of habeas corpus, no bill of attainder, and the prohibition of ex post facto laws)
          • Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Amendments
          • protection provided by the Fourteenth Amendment
        • PO 3.  Examine various sources of government funding:
          • federal – income tax, duties , excise taxes, corporate tax
          • state – income tax, sales tax
          • local – property tax, sales tax
        • PO 4.  Describe the regulatory functions of government pertaining to consumer protection, environment, health, labor, transportation, and communication.
          PO 5.  Describe the factors and processes that determine major domestic policies (e.g., Social Security, education, health care, parks, environmental protection).

          • Concept 4: Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
        • PO 1.  Analyze basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed by Amendments and laws:
          • freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition in the First Amendment
          • right to bear arms in the Second Amendment
          • Ninth Amendment and guarantee of people’s unspecified rights
          • civil rights in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments
          • voting rights in the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third, Twenty fourth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments; Native American citizenship and voting rights (Arizona, 1948); Voting Rights Act of 1965
          • conflicts which occur between rights (e.g., the tensions between the right to a fair trial and freedom of the press, and between majority rule and individual rights)
          • right to work laws
        • PO 2.  Define citizenship according to the Fourteenth Amendment.
          PO 3.  Examine the basic political, social responsibilities of citizenship:

          • connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington’s Farewell Speech), volunteerism
          • obligations of upholding the Constitution
          • obeying the law, serving on juries, paying taxes, voting, and military service
          • analyzing public issues, policy making, and evaluating candidates
        • PO 4.  Demonstrate the skills and knowledge (e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting) needed to accomplish public purposes.
          PO 5.  Describe the role and influence of political parties, interest groups, and mass media:
          • political perspectives (e.g., liberalism, conservatism, progressivism, libertarianism)
          • influence of interest groups, lobbyists, and PAC’s on elections, the political process and policy making
          • influence of the mass media on elections, the political process and policy making
      • Concept 5: Government Systems of the World
        • PO 1.  Compare the United States system of politics and government to other systems of the world (e.g., monarchies, dictatorship, theocracy, oligarchy, parliamentary, unitary, proportional elections).
          PO 2.  Describe factors (e.g., trade, political tensions, sanctions, terrorism) that influence United States foreign policy.
          PO 3.  Describe world governmental and non-governmental organizations (e.g., the United Nations and its agencies, NATO, the European Union, the International Red Cross).