District of Columbia

D.C. Municipal Regulations and D.C. Register:

Rule 5-E2203 Graduation Academic Requirements: 4 credits of Social Studies that must include World History 1 and 2, United States History; United States Government, and District of Columbia History.

 

 

District of Columbia Social Studies Standards

“These standards integrate the four major disciplines of history, geography, economics, and politics and government. They are not presented in separate strands, although grade 6 focuses on geography and grade 12 focuses on government, including U.S. and Washington, DC, governments.” (page 2)

Grade 4

  • Standard 4.9 Students describe the course and consequences of the American Revolution.
    • Locate and identify the major military battles, campaign, and turning points of the Revolutionary War.
    • Understand the roles of the American and British leaders, and the Indian leaders’ alliances on both sides.
    • Understand the roles of African Americans, including their alliances on both sides (especially the case of Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation and its impact on the war).
    • Identify the contribution of France, Spain, the Netherland, and Russia, as well as certain individuals to the outcome of the Revolution (e.g., Marquis Marie Joseph de Lafayette, Tadeusz Kosciuzko, and Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben).
    • Describe the significance of land policies developed under the Continental Congress (e.g., sale of western lands and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787) and those polices’ impacts on American Indians’ land.
    • Explain how the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence changed the way people viewed slavery.
    • Describe the different roles women played during the Revolution (e.g., Abigail Adams, Martha Washington, Phillis Wheatley, and Mercy Otis Warren).
    • Analyze the personal impact and economic hardship of war on families, problems of financing the war, wartime inflation, and laws against hoarding goods and materials and profiteering.
  • Standard 4.10 Students describe the people and events associated with the development of the U.S. Constitution.
    • Describe the significance of the new Constitution of 1787, including the struggles over its ratification and the reasons for the Bill of Rights.
    • Describe the direct and indirect (or enabling) statements of the conditions on slavery in the Constitution and their impact on the emerging U.S. nation-state.
    • Describe how the Constitution is designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government.
    • Understand the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law, and to preserve the Constitution.
    • List and interpret the songs that express American ideals (e.g., “America the Beautiful” and “The Star-Spangled Banner”).
    • Students compare and contrast 15th-through-18th-century America and the United States of the 21st century with respect to population, settlement, patterns, resource use, transportation system, human livelihoods, and economic activity.

Grade 5

  • Standard 5.3 Students describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800.
    • Describe how Southern colonists slowly altered their attitudes toward Africans, increasingly viewing them as permanent slaves; the harsh conditions of the Middle Passage; the response of slave families to their condition; and the ongoing struggle between proponents and opponents of slavery.
    • Describe the contributions of enslaved and freed Africans to the economic development of the colonies.
    • Identify the characteristics of slave life and the resistance on plantations and farms across the South.
    • Explain the significance and consequences ensuing from the abolition of slavery in the Northern states after the Revolution and of the 1808 law that banned the importation of slaves into the United States.
    • Describe the impact of the cotton gin on the economics and culture of slavery and Southern agriculture.
  • Standard 5.4 Students identify prominent people and movements for social justice in the United States, including:
    • Dorothea Dix and her quest for prison reform and help for the mentally ill.
    • Paul Cuffe, Martin Delany and the idea of emigration among African Americans.
    • Horace Mann and public education.
    • Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner, and Gabriel Prosser and their resistance to enslavement.
    • Prudence Crandall and education for free African Americans.
    • Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and equality for women.
    • Frederick Douglass, the Grinke sisters, and William Lloyd Garrison and the abolition of slavery.
    • Jose Marti, Francisco Gonzalo (Pachin) Marin, and Sotero Figueroa and the Independence of Cuba and Puerto Rico from Spain.
  • Standard 5.5 Students summarize the causes and consequences of the Civil War.
    • Describe the extension of and controversy about slavery into the territories, including popular sovereignty, the Dred Scott, decision, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
    • Explain the role of abolitionists, including reformers Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Martin Delany, and John Brown.
    • Describe the emergence of Abraham Lincoln as a national political figure and the secession of Southern states.
    • Identify Union and Confederate States at the outbreak of the Civil War, Yankees and Rebels, and the role of African American troops in the war.
    • Describe the experience of the war on the battlefield and home front.
    • Analyze the rationales for the Emancipation Proclamation and the emancipation of African Americans in Washington, DC.
  • Standard 5.6 Students explain the successes and failures of Reconstruction.
    • Describe the physical and economic destruction of the South.
    • Describe the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in Washington, DC.
    • Identify the goals and accomplishments of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
    • Describe the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, as well as African American political and economic progress.
    • Analyze the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, black code, vigilante justice, and Jim Crow laws.
    • Analyze the emergence of African American self-help organizations, emigration to all black towns in the West (e.g., the Exodusters), and the call for reparations by formerly enslaved leaders (e.g., Isaiah Dickerson, Calli House, and the ex-slave pension and mutual relief association).
  • Standard 5.14 Students describe the key events and accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
    • Describe the proliferation of the Civil Rights movement of African Americans from the churches of the rural South to the urban North.
    • Explain the role of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). o Identify key leaders in the struggle to extend equal rights to all Americans through the decades. o List and describe the steps toward desegregation.
    • Explain the women’s rights movement, including differing perspectives on the roles of women.
    • Explain the growth of the African American middle class.

Grade 8

  • 8.1 Students explain the religious, political, and economic reasons for movement of people from Europe to the Americas, and they describe the impact of exploration and settlement by Europeans on Native Americans.
    • Describe the varied economic and trade networks within and among major indigenous culture prior to contact with Europeans and their systems of government, religious beliefs, distinct territories, and customs and traditions.
    • Explain instances of both cooperation and conflict between Native Americans and European settlers, such as agriculture, trade, cultural exchanges, and military alliances, as well as later broken treaties, massacres, and conflicts over control of the land.
    • Explain geographic reasons for the development of communications and smuggling within the colonies (irregular coastlines, need for products not produced locally).
    • Locate and identify the first 13 colonies, and describe how their location and natural environment influenced their development.
    • Identify the contributions of political and religious leaders in colonial America (e.g., John Smith, William Bradford, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, and William Penn).
    • Describe the significance and leaders of the First Great Awakening, which marked a shift in religious ideas, practices, and allegiances in the colonial period and the growth in religious toleration and free exercise of religion.
    • Describe the day-to-day colonial life for men, women, and children in different regions and their connection to the land.
    • Examine the beginnings of Africans in America by identifying some of the major ethnic/national groups that came.
    • Explain that some Africans came to America as indentured servants who were released at the end of their indenture, as well as those who came as captives to slavery.
    • Identify the origins and development of slavery in the colonies, the struggle between proponents and opponents of slavery in the colonies and overt and passive resistance to enslavement.
  • Standard 8.2 Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
    • Describe the relationship between the moral and political ideas of the Great Awakening and the development of revolutionary fervor.
    • Explain how freedom from European feudalism and aristocracy and the widespread ownership of property fostered individual and contributed to the American Revolution.
    • Analyze the philosophy of government express in the Declaration of Independence, with an emphasis on government as a means of securing individual rights (e.g., key phrases such as “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights.”).
    • Identify the political and economic causes and consequences of the American Revolution and the major battles, leaders, and events that led to a final peace (e.g., free press and taxation without representation).
    • Analyze how the American Revolution influenced other nations’ revolutions.
    • Explain the nation’s blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions.
    • Describe the functions and responsibilities of a free press.
  • Standard 8.3 Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution, and they compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
    • Describe the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of rights, and the Mayflower Compact.
    • Analyze the Articles of Confederation and the reasons for its replacement by the Constitution.
    • Explain the Constitution and its success in implementing the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
    • Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations.
    • Describe the political philosophy underpinning the Constitution as specified in The Federalist Papers (by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay) and explain the role of such leaders as James Madison, George Washington, Roger Sherman, Gouverneur Morris, and James Wilson in the writing and ratification of the Constitution.
    • Describe the principles of federalism, dual sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, the nature and purpose of majority rule, and the ways in which the American idea of constitutionalism preserves individual rights.
    • Identify and explain the origins, purpose, and differing views of the framers on the issue of separation of church and state.
    • Explain the significance of Jefferson’s Statute for Religious Freedom as a forerunner of the First Amendment.
    • Describe the powers of government set forth in the Constitution and the fundamental liberties ensured by the Bill of Rights.
    • Explain the need and reasons for amendments to the Constitution.
  • Standards 8.4 Students understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.
    • Analyze the principles and concepts codified in state constitutions between 1777 and 1781 that created the context out of which American political institutions and ideas developed.
    • Explain how the ordinances of 1787 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
    • Explain the strict versus loose interpretation of the Constitution and how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., their views of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank funding, and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
    • Understanding the significance of domestic resistance movements and the way in which the central government responded to such movements (e.g, Shays’ Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion).
    • Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provided numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties and interest groups).
    • Enumerate the advantages of a common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitution’s clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, etc.
  • Standard 8.7 Students analyze the paths of American people in the North from 1800 to the mid- 1800s and the challenges they faced.
    • Trace the development of the American education system from its earliest roots, including the roles of religious and private schools and Horace Mann’s campaign for free public education and its assimilating role in American culture.
    • Explain the women’s suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Sojourner Truth, Maria Stewart, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony).
    • Identify common themes in American art as well as transcendentalism and individualism (e.g., writings about and by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry Wadsworth.
  • Standard 8.8 Students analyze the paths of the American people in the South from 1800 to the mid- 1800s and the challenges they faced.
    • Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, the locations of the cotton- producing states, and the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
    • Explain the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
    • Trace the development of slavery; its effects on black Americans and on the region’s political, social, religious, economic and cultural development; and the strategies that were tried to both overturn and preserve it (e.g., through the writing of David Walker, Henry Highland Garnet, Martin Delany, and Frederick Douglass, as well as the historical documents on Nat Turner and Denmark Vesey).
  • Standards 8.10 Students analyze the issue of slavery, including the early and steady attempts to abolish slavery and to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
    • Describe the abolition of slavery in early state constitutions.
    • Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance in education and in the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River.
    • Identify the various leaders of the abolitionist movement (e.g., John Quincy Adams and his proposed constitutional amendment and the Amistad case; John Brown and the armed resistance; Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad; Theodore Weld, crusader for freedom; William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator; Frederick Douglass and the Slave Narratives; Martin Delany and The Emigration Cause; and Sojourner Truth and “Ain’t I a Woman.”).
    • Describe the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California’s admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850.
    • Analyze the significance of the States’ Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Wilmot Proviso (1846), the Compromise of 1850, Henry Clay’s role in the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision (1857), and the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858).
    • Identify the conditions of enslavement, and explain how slaves adapted and resisted in their daily lives.
    • Describe the lives of free blacks and the laws that limited their freedom and economic opportunities (e.g., Cincinnati riots and the Ohio Black Codes).
  • Standards 8.11 Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
    • Trace on a map the boundaries constituting the North and the South, the geographical difference between the two regions and the differences between agrarians and industrialists.
    • Compare the conflicting interpretations of state and federal authority as emphasized in the speeches and writings of statesmen, such as Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.
    • Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and the earliest origins of that doctrine.
    • Describe Abraham Lincoln’s presidency and his significant writings and speeches and their relationship to the Declaration of Independence (e.g., his House Divided speech in 1858, Gettysburg Address in 1863, Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, and inaugural address in 1861 and 1865).
    • Explain the views and lives of leaders (e.g., Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, and Robert E. Lee) and soldiers on both sides of the wars, including those of black soldiers and regiments.
    • Describe African American involvement in the Union army, including the Massachusetts 54th Regiment led by Colonel Robert Shaw.
    • Describe critical developments and events in the war, including locating on a map the major battles, geographical advantages and obstacles, technological advances, and General Lee’s surrender at Appomattox
  • Standard 8.12 Students analyze the character and lasting consequences of Reconstruction.
    • Explain the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution and their connection to Reconstruction.
    • List and describe the original aims of Reconstruction (e.g., to reunify the nation) and its effect on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and Jim Crow laws.
    • Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and vigilante justice.
    • Explain the movement of both white Northerner entrepreneurs (carpetbaggers) and black Yankees from the North to the South and their reasons for doing so.
    • Explain the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiencing in those regions (e.g., the experiences of Buffalo Soldiers and the Exodusters).
    • Outline the pulling out of the federal army and its troops from the South due to an agreement negotiated by a bipartisan Congressional Commission, thus ending Reconstruction.

Grade 11

  • Standard 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.
    • Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the context in which the nation was founded.
    • Describe the early settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, including the purpose of the Mayflower Compact and its principles of self-government.
    • Describe the origins, key events, and key figures of the American Revolution.
    • Analyze the framers’ philosophy of divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence, and the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation.
    • Analyze the shortcomings of the Articles, and describe the crucial events leading to the ratification of the Constitution and the addition of the Bill of Rights, including the debates over slavery.
    • Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American Revolution and the formation and framework of the American government.
    • Explain the history of the Constitution after 1787, including federal versus state authority and growing democratization.
    • Examine a historical map, and identify the physical location of the states and geographical regions of the United States post-Reconstruction.
    • Explain the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the Industrial Revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late 19th century of the United States as a world power.
    • Trace the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Industrial Revolution.
  • Standard 11.6 Students describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s.
    • Analyze the attacks on civil liberties and racial and ethnic tensions, including the Palmer Raids, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, and the emergency of Garveyism.
    • Trace the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks.
    • Explain the passage of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act (Prohibition).
    • Analyze the passage of the 19th Amendment and the changing role of women in society.
  • Standard 11.8 Students analyze America’s participation in World War II.
    • Describe the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens.
    • Examine and explain the entry of large numbers of women into the workforce, the roles and growing political demands of African Americans, and A. Philip Randolph on the efforts to eliminate employment discrimination.
  • Standards 11.11 Students analyze the origins, goals, keys events, and accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States
    • Explain the roots of the 1950s and 1960s Civil Rights movement in the legal struggles and largely interracial coalition building of the 1940s (e.g., Congress of Racial Equality and NAACP Legal Defense Fund).
    • Describe the diffusion of the Civil Rights movement of African Americans from the churches of the rural South to the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham, and how their advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities.
    • Describe the birth and spread of the Chicano Movement, from New Mexico to Denver to Washington, DC, and analyze its moderate and more militant arms (e.g., Brown Berets, United Farm Workers, Mexican American Political Association, and Raza Unida).
    • Explain the role of institutions (e.g., the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP; the Warren Court; the National of Islam; the Congress of Racial Equality; the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; League of United Latin American Citizens, or LULAC; the National Council of La Raza, or NCLR; the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, or MALDEF; the National Puerto Rican Coalition; and the Student Non- Violent Coordinating Committee).
    • Describe the legacies and ideologies of key people (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Dolores Huerta, Raul Yzaguirre, Robert Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr, Ella Jo Baker, Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Park, and Malcom X).
    • Outline the steps toward desegregation (e.g., Jackie Robinson and baseball, Harry Truman and the armed forces, and Adam Clayton Powell and Congress) and the integration of public schools, includingPlessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, and Bolling v. Sharpe).
    • Trace the identification of rights of immigrant populations (non-English speakers) by examining a series of legal decisions from the Supreme Court (e.g., Hernandez v. Texas, Mendez v. Westminster, Plyler v. Doe, Lau v Nichols, and Keyes v. Denver).
    • Explain the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, the 24th Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process.
    • Describe the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 and the effect of abolishing the national origins quotas on the demographic makeup of America.
    • Analyze the women’s rights movement launched in the 1960s, including differing perspectives on the roles of women, the National Organization of Women, and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).
  • Standard 11.12 Students analyze important events and trends in the 1960s and 1970s.
    • Explain the Watergate scandal (including the Supreme Court Case, US v. Nixon), the changing role of media and journalism in the United States as a result, and the controversies surrounding Ford’s pardon of Nixon.
    • Explain the 1972 Church Senate Commission and the uncovering of the FBI’s Counterintelligence (COINTELPRO) program of domestic spying on black and leftist organizations.
    • Analyze the women’s rights movements in the 1960s and 1970s (e.g., formation of NOW and the debate over the Equal Rights Amendment).
  • Standard 11.13. Students describe important events and trends of the late 20th century.
    • Explain the Supreme Court case Bush v. Gore.

Grade 12

  • Standard 12.1 Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of the American Republic as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and other essential documents of American democracy.
    • Analyze the influence of ancient Greek, Roman, English and leading European political thinkers such as John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Niccolo Machiavelli, and William Blackstone on the development of American government.
    • Discuss the character of American democracy and its promise and perils as articulated by Alexis de Tocqueville.
    • Explain how the U.S. Constitution reflects a balance between classical republican concern with promotion of the public good and the classical liberal concern with protecting individual rights; and discuss how the basic premises of liberal constitutionalism and democracy are joined in the Declaration of Independence as “self-evident truths.”
    • Explain how the Founding Fathers’ realistic view of human nature led directly to the establishment of a constitutional system that limited the power of the governors and the governed as articulated in The Federalist Papers.
    • Describe the systems of separated and shared powers, the role of organization interests (Federalist Paper Number 10), checks and balances (Federalist Paper Number 51), the importance of an independent judiciary (Federalist Papers Number 78), enumerated powers, rule of law, federalism, and civilian control of the military.
    • Understand that the Bill of Rights limits the powers of the federal government and state governments.
  • Standard 12.2 Students formulate questions about and defend their analyses of tensions within our constitutional democracy and the importance of maintaining a balance between the following concepts: majority rule and individual rights; liberty and equality; state and national authority in a federal system; civil disobedience and the rule of law; freedom of the press and the right to a fair trial; and the relationship of religion and government.
  • Standard 12.3 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
    • Discuss Article I of the Constitution as it relates to the legislative branch, including eligibility for office and length of terms of representatives and senators; election to office; the roles of the House and Senate in impeachment proceedings; the role of the vice president; the enumerated legislative powers; and the process by which a bill becomes law.
    • Explain the process through which the Constitution can be amended.
    • Identify their current representatives in the legislative branch of the national government.
    • Discuss Article II of the Constitution as it relates to the executive branch, including eligibility for office and length of term, election to and removal from office, the oath of office, and the enumerated executive powers.
    • Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the length of terms of judges and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
    • Explain the processes of selection and confirmation of Supreme Court justices.
  • Standard 12.4 Students summarize landmark U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and its amendments.
    • Understand the changing interpretations of the Bill of Rights over time, including interpretations of the basic freedoms (religion, speech, press, petition and assembly) articulated in the First Amendment and the due process and equal-protection-of-the-law clauses of the 14th amendment.
    • Analyze judicial activism and judicial restraint and the effects of each policy over the decades (e.g., the Warren and Rehnquist courts).
    • Evaluate the effects of the Court’s interpretations of the Constitution in Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and United States v. Nixon, with emphasis on the arguments espoused by each side in these cases.
  • Standard 12.5 Students analyze and compare the powers and procedures of the national, state, tribal, and local governments.
    • Explain how conflicts between levels of government and branches of government are resolved.
    • Identify the major responsibilities and sources of revenue for state and local governments.
    • Discuss reserved powers and concurrent powers of state governments.
    • Discuss the 9th and 10th amendments and interpretations of the extent of the federal government’s power.
    • Explain how public policy is formed, including the setting of the public agenda and implementation of it through regulations and executive orders.
    • Compare the processes of lawmaking at each of the three levels of government, including the role of lobbying and the media.
    • Identify the organization and jurisdiction of federal, state, and local (e.g., California) courts and the interrelationships among them.
    • Understand the scope of presidential power and decision-making through examination of case studies, such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, passage of Great Society legislation, War Powers Act, Gulf War, and Bosnia.
  • Standard 12.8 Students evaluate and take and defend positions on the scope and limits of rights and obligations as democratic citizens, the relationships among them, and how they are secured.
    • Discuss the meaning and importance of each of the rights guaranteed under the Bill of Rights and how each is secured (e.g., freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition, and privacy).
    • Explain how economic rights are secured and their importance to the individual and to society (e.g., the right to acquire, use, transfer and dispose of property; right to choose one’s work; right to join or not join labor unions; copyright and patent).
    • Discuss the individual’s legal obligations to obey the law, serve as a juror, and pay taxes.
    • Understand the obligations of civic-mindedness, including voting, being informed on civic issues, volunteering and performing public service, and serving in the military or alternative service.
    • Describe the reciprocity between rights and obligations, that is, why enjoyment of one’s rights entails respect for the rights of others.
    • Explain how one becomes a citizen of the United States, including the process of naturalization (e.g., literacy, language, and other requirements).
  • Standard 12.10 Students analyze the development and evolution of civil rights for women and minorities and how these advances were made possibly by expanding rights under the U.S. Constitution.
    • Explain the Civil Rights movement and resulting legislation and legal precedents, including the Truman and Eisenhower-era integration policies and laws.
    • Trace the women’s rights movement and resulting legislation and legal precedents.
    • Outline legislation and legal precedents that establish rights for the disabled, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, and other minority groups, including the tensions between protected categories (e.g., race) and nonprotected ones (Unites States v. Carolene Products, Co, and “Famous Footnote Four”).