Georgia

Georgia High School Graduation Requirements in Citizenship Education:

 Ga. Comp. R. & Regs. r. 160-4-2-.06 Three Carnegie units of credit shall be required in social studies for the High School Diploma, the Vocational Endorsement and the College Preparatory Endorsement. One Carnegie unit shall be required in United States history. One Carnegie unit shall be required from the world studies area, e.g., world history or world geography. World history shall be required for the College Preparatory Endorsement. One quarter or one semester of citizenship education (government) shall be required. One quarter or one semester of Principles of Economics/Business/Free Enterprise shall be required.

Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT):

“The Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) measure whether Georgia high school students have mastered essential content from the state-adopted curriculum.” The topic of American Government/Civics is about 18% of the examination: “Students of American Government/Civics must understand the philosophy, functions, and structure of the United States government. Assessment of this domain focuses on the students’ ability to analyze the philosophical foundations of the United States government; to describe, explain, and analyze how that philosophy developed into the structure and function of the United States government; and to describe and explain the government’s relationship to the states and to its citizens. Assessment of American Government/Civics includes items that require students to interpret primary source material and charts.” (page 4)

 

Georgia Social Studies Standards

Kindergarten

  • SSKH1 The student will identify the purpose of national holidays and describe the people or events celebrated.
    • Labor Day
    • Columbus Day (Christopher Columbus)
    • Veterans Day
    • Thanksgiving Day
    • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
    • President Day (George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and the current President)
    • Memorial Day
    • Flag Day
    • Independence Day
  • SSKH2 The student will identify important American symbols and explain their meaning.
    • The national and state flags (United States and Georgia flags)
    • The bald eagle
    • The Statue of Liberty
    • Lincoln Memorial
    • Washington Monument
    • White House
    • Pledge of Allegiance
    • Star Spangled Banner
  • SSKCG1 The students will demonstrate an understanding of good citizenship.
    • Explain how rules are made and why
    • Explain why rules should be followed
  • SS1H1 The student will read about and describe the life of historical figures in American history.
    • Identify the contributions made by these figures: Benjamin Franklin (inventor/author/statesman), Thomas Jefferson (Declaration of Independence), Meriwether Lewis and William Clark with Sacagawea (exploration), Harriet Tubman (Underground Railroad), Theodore Roosevelt (National Parks and the environment), George Washington Carver (science).
  • SS1CH2 The student will explain the meaning of the patriotic words to America (My Country ‘Tis of Thee) and America the Beautiful.

Grade 2

  • SS2CG1 The student will define the concept of government and the need for rules and laws.
  • SS2CG2 The student will identify the roles of the following elected officials:
    • President (leader of our nation) o Governor (leader of our  state) o Mayor (leader of a  city)

Grade 3

  • SS3H1 The student will explore the political roots of our modern democracy in the United States of America.
    • Identify the influence of Greek architecture (columns on the Parthenon, U.S. Supreme Court building), law, and the Olympic Games on the present.
    • Explain the ancient Athenians’ idea that a community should choose its own leaders.
    • Compare and contrast Athens as a direct democracy with the United States as a representative democracy.
  • SS3H2 Students will discuss the lives of Americans who expanded people’s rights and freedoms in a democracy.
    • Paul Revere (independence), Frederick Douglass (civil rights), Susan B. Anthony (women’s rights), Mary McLeod Bethune (education), Franklin D. Roosevelt (New Deal and World War II), Eleanor Roosevelt (United Nations and human rights), Thurgood Marshall (civil rights), Lyndon v. Johnson (Great Society and voting rights, and Cesar Chavez (workers’ rights).
    • Explain social barriers, restrictions, and obstacles that these historical figures had to overcome and describe how they overcame them.
  • SS3CG1 The student will explain the importance of the basic principles that provide the foundation of a republican form of government.
    • Explain why in the United States there is a separation of power between branches of government and levels of government.
    • Name the three levels of government (national, state, local) and the three branches in each (executive, legislative, judicial), including the names of the legislative branch (Congress, General Assembly, county commission or city council).
    • State an example of the responsibilities of each level and branch of government.
  • SS3CG2 The student will discuss the character of different historical figures in SS3H2a.
    • Describe how the different historical figures in SS3H2a display positive character traits of cooperation, diligence, courage, and leadership.
    • Explain how the historical figures in SS3H2a used positive character traits to support their beliefs in liberty, justice, tolerance, and freedom of conscience and expression.
    • Explain how the historical figures in SS3H2a chose when to respect and accept authority.

Grade 4

  • SS4H3 The student will explain the factors that shaped British colonial America.
    • Compare and contrast life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies.
    • Describe colonial life in America as experienced by various people, including large landowners, famers, artisans, women, indentured servants, slaves, and Native Americans.
  • SS4H4 The student will explain the causes, events, and results of the American Revolution.
    • Trace the events that shaped the revolutionary movement in America, including the French and Indian War, British Imperial Policy that led to the 1765 Stamp Act, the slogan “no taxation without representation,” the activities of the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Tea Party.
    • Explain the writing of the Declaration of Independence; include who wrote it, how it was written, why it was necessary, and how it was a response to tyranny and the abuse of power.
    • Describe the major events of the American Revolution and explain the factors leading to American victory and British defeat; include the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown.
    • Describe key individuals in the American Revolution with emphasis on King George III, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Benedict Arnold, Patrick Henry, and John Adams.
  • SS4H5 The student will analyze the challenges faced by the new nation.
    • Identify the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation.
    • Identify the major leaders of the Constitutional Convention (James Madison and Benjamin Franklin) and describe the major issues they debated, including the rights of states, the Great Compromise, and slavery.
    • Identify the three branches of the U.S. government as outlined by the Constitution, describe what they do, how they relate to each other (checks and balances and separation of power), and how they relate to the states.
    • Identify and explain the rights in the Bill of Rights, describe how the Bill of Rights places limits on the power of government, and explain the reasons for its inclusion in the Constitution in 1791.
  • SS4H7 The student will examine the main ideas of the abolitionist and suffrage movements.
    • Discuss the biographies of Harriet Tubman and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
    • Explain the significance of Sojourner Truth to the abolition and suffrage movements.
  • SS4CG1 The student will describe the meaning of:
    • Natural rights as found in the Declaration of Independence (the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness).
    • “We the People” from the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution as a reflection of consent of the governed or popular sovereignty.
    • The federal system of government in the U.S.
  • SS4CG2 The student will explain the importance of freedom of expression as guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • SS4CG3 The student will describe the functions of government.
    • Explain the process for making and enforcing laws. o  Explain managing conflicts and protecting rights.  o Describe providing for the defense of the nation.
    • Explain limiting the power of people in authority.
    • Explain the fiscal responsibility of government.
  • SS4CG4 The student will explain the importance of Americans sharing certain central democratic beliefs and principles, both personal and civic.
    • Explain the necessity of respecting the rights of others and promoting the common good. o Explain the necessity of obeying reasonable laws/rules voluntarily, and explain why it is important for citizens in a democratic society to participate in public (civic) life (staying informed, voting, volunteering, communicating with public officials).
  • SS4CG5 The student will name positive character traits of key historical figures and government leaders (honesty, patriotism, courage, trustworthiness).

Grade 5

  • SS5H1 The student will explain the causes, major events, and consequences of the Civil War.
    • Identify Uncle Tom’s Cabin and John Brow’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, and explain how each of these events was related to the Civil War.
    • Discuss how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased tensions between the North and South.
    • Identify major battles and campaigns: Fort Sumter, Gettysburg, the Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Appomattox Court House.
    • Describe the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, and Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson.
    • Describe the effects of war on the North and South.
  • SS5H2 The student will analyze the effects of Reconstruction on American life.
    • Describe the purpose of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.
    • Explain the work of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
    • Explain how slavery was replaced by sharecropping and how African-Americans were prevented from exercising their newly won rights; include a discussion of Jim Crow laws and customs.
  • SS5H8 The student will describe the importance of key people, events, and developments between 1960 and 1975.
    • Explain the key events and people of the Civil Rights movement; include Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the March on Washington, Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, and civil rights activities of Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • SS5CG1 The student will explain how a citizen’s rights are protected under the U.S. Constitution.
    • Explain the responsibilities of a citizen.
    • Explain the freedoms granted and rights protected by the Bill of Rights.
    • Explain the concept of due process of law and describe how the U.S. Constitution protects a citizen’s rights by due process.
  • SS5CG2 The student will explain the process by which amendments to the U.S. Constitution are made.
    • Explain the amendment process outlined in the Constitution.
    • Describe the purpose of the amendment process.
  • SS5CG3 The student will explain how amendments to the U.S. Constitution have maintained a representative democracy.
    • Explain the purpose of the 12th and 17th amendments.
    • Explain how voting rights were protected by the 15th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, and 26th amendments.

Grades 9-12: American Government/Civics

  • SSCG1 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of United States constitutional government.
    • Analyze key ideas of limited government and the rule of law as seen in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights.
    • Analyze the writings of Hobbes (Leviathan), Locke (Second Treatise of Government), and Montesquieu (The Spirit of Laws), as they affect our concept of government.
  • SSCG2 The student will analyze the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
    • Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory.
    • Evaluate the Declaration of Independence as a persuasive argument.
  • SSCG3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States Constitution.
    • Explain the main ideas in debate over ratification; include those in The Federalist.
    • Analyze the purpose of government stated in the Preamble of the United States Constitution.
    • Explain the fundamental principles upon which the United States Constitution is based; include the rule of law, popular sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism.
  • SSCG4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government.
    • Describe the structure and powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
    • Analyze the relationship between the three branches in a system of checks and balances and separation of powers.
  • SSCG5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the federal system of government described in the United States Constitution.
    • Explain the relationship of state governments to the national government.
    • Define the difference between enumerated and implied powers.
    • Describe the extent to which power is shared.
    • Identify powers denied to state and national governments.
    • Analyze the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.
    • Analyze the supremacy clause found in Article VI and the role of the U.S. Constitution as the “supreme law of the land.”
    • Explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag of the United States.
  • SSCG6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights.
    • Examine the Bill of Rights with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms.
    • Analyze due process law expressed in the 5th and 14th amendments.
    • Explain selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights.
    • Explain how government seeks to maintain the balance between individual liberties and the public interest.
    • Explain every citizen’s right to be treated equally under the law.
  • SSCG7 The student will describe how thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by obeying the law, paying taxes, serving on a jury, participating in the political process, performing public service, registering for military duty, being informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions.
  • SSCG8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections.
    • Describe the organization, role, and constituencies of political parties.
    • Describe the nomination and election process.
    • Examine campaign funding and spending.
    • Analyze the influence of media coverage, campaign advertising, and public opinion polls.
    • Identify how amendments extend the right to vote.
  • SSCG9 The student will explain the differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate, with emphasis on terms of office, powers, organization, leadership, and representation of each house.
  • SSCG10 The student will describe the legislative process including the roles played by committees and leadership.
    • Explain the steps in the legislative process.
    • Explain the function of various leadership positions within the legislature.
  • SSCG11 The student will describe the influence of lobbyists (business, labor, professional organizations) and special interest groups on the legislative process.
    • Explain the function of lobbyists.
    • Describe the laws and rules that govern lobbyists.
    • Explain the function of special interest groups.
  • SSCG12 The student will analyze the various roles played by the President of the United States; include Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the chief executive, chief agenda setter, representative of the nation, chief of state, foreign policy leader, and party leader.
  • SSCG13 The student will describe the qualifications for becoming President of the United States.
    • Explain the written qualifications for President of the United States.
    • Describe unwritten qualifications common to past presidents.
  • SSCG14 The student will explain the impeachment process and its usage for elected officials.
    • Explain the impeachment process as defined in the U.S. Constitution.
    • Describe the impeachment proceedings of Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton.
  • SSCG15 The student will explain the functions of the departments and agencies of the federal bureaucracy.
    • Compare and contrast the organization and responsibilities of independent regulatory agencies, government corporations, and executive agencies.
    • Explain the functions of the Cabinet.
  • SSCG16 The students will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary.
    • Explain the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, federal courts and the state courts.
    • Describe how the Supreme Court decides cases.
    • Compare the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint.
  • SSCG17 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of state and local government described in the Georgia Constitution.
    • Examine the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
    • Examine the structure of local governments with emphasis on county, city, and town.
    • Identify current and local officials.
    • Analyze the relationship among state and local governments.
    • Evaluate direct democracy by the initiative, referendum, and recall processes.
  • SSCG18 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the powers of Georgia’s state and local governments.
    • Examine the powers of state and local government.
    • Examine sources of revenue received by each level of government.
    • Analyze the services provided by state and local government.
  • SSCG19 The student will compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederal, and federal; autocratic, oligarchic and democratic; and presidential and parliamentary.
  • SSCG20 The student will describe the tools used to carry out United States foreign policy (diplomacy; economic, military, and humanitarian aid; treaties; sanctions and military intervention).
  • SSCG21 The student will describe the causes and effects of criminal activity.
    • Examine the nature and causes of crimes.
    • Explain the effects criminal acts have on their intended victims.
    • Categorize different types of crimes.
    • Explain the different types of defenses used by perpetrators of crime.
  • SSCG22 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the criminal justice process.
    • Analyze the steps in the criminal justice process.
    • Explain an individual’s due process rights.
    • Describe the steps in a criminal trial or civil suit.
    • Examine the different types of sentences a convicted person can receive.
  • SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.
    • Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
    • Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.
    • Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
    • Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec.
    • Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and economic development; include the southern, middle, and New England colonies.
  • SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways the economy and society of British North America developed.
    • Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade.
    • Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.
    • Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.
    • Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
  • SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.
    • Explain how the end of the Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.
    • Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1783, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence.
    • Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence.
  • SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.
    • Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writings of John Locke and the role of Thomas Jefferson.
    • Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette.
    • Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge.
    • Explain the role of geography at the Battle of Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783.
  • SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
    • Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.
    • Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
    • Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery.
    • Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.
    • Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).
  • SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
    • Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.
    • Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.
    • Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.
    • Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference.
    • Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism.
  • SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.
    • Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).
    • Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories.
    • Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergency of states’ rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism.
    • Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.
    • Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population growth.
  • SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.
    • Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid.
    • Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus.
    • Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.
    • Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles.
    • Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
    • Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output.
  • SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.
    • Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction.
    • Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
    • Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments.
    • Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction.
    • Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction.
    • Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.
  • SSUSH13 The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era.
    • Explain Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry.
    • Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements.
    • Describe the rise of Jim, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergency of the NAACP.
    • Explain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker.
    • Describe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, recall, and referendum; direct election of senators; reform of labor laws; and efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities.
  • SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.
    • Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs.
    • Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing woman suffrage.
  • SSUSH22 The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970.
    • Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the U.S. military and the federal government.
    • Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball.
    • Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision.
    • Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his I Have a Dream speech.
    • Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970.
    • Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision.
    • Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation.
    • Explain Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare.
    • Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968; include the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the Democratic National Convention.
  • SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s.
    • Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom ride, and changing composition.
    • Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement.
    • Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.
    • Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers’ movement.
    • Explain the importance of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the creation of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the modern environmental movement.
    • Describe the rise of the conservative movement as see in the presidency candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon (1968).
  • SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
    • Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation due to Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford.
    • Explain the impact of Supreme Court decisions in ideas about civil liberties and civil rights; include such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on affirmative action.
    • Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the Electoral College.
    • Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on the United States, the war against terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq.