Maryland

Title 13A of the Maryland State Department of Education:

COMAR 13A.03.02 [.04] .03 Enrollment and Credit Requirements: three credits of social studies are required including one in U.S. history, one in world history and one in local, state and national government aligned with the Maryland High School Assessment for government.

Maryland Social Studies Standards

Pre-Kindergarten

  • Standard 1.0 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Functions of Government
      • Identify the importance of rules.
        • Recognize why people have rules at home and at school.
        • Generate and follow classroom rules, such as taking turns, walking inside, and forming a line that promote order and safety in the classroom.
      • Identify symbols and practices associated with the United States of America.
        • Recognize symbols, such as the American flag.
        • Recognize that the Pledge of Allegiance is a practice that happens in school.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Recognize people important to the American political system.
        • Respond to informational test read aloud to develop an awareness of the contributions made by certain individuals that are remembered during the observance of national holidays and celebrations.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Identify the roles, rights, and responsibilities of being a member of the family and school.
        • Identify roles of family members.
        • Identify the roles of members of the school, such as principal, teacher, and nurse.
        • Identify and discuss rights, responsibilities and choices in the classroom and family.

Kindergarten

  • Standard 1 Political Science: Students will understand the historical development and current status of the democratic principles and the development of skills and attitudes necessary to become responsible citizens.
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Identify the importance of rules.
        • Identify reasons for classroom and school rules, such as maintaining order and keeping the community safe.
        • Recognize rules help promote fairness, responsible behavior, and privacy.
      • Identify symbols and practices associated with the United States of America.
        • Identify common symbols, such as the American Flag, and Statue of Liberty.
        • Recognize that saying the Pledge of Allegiance and singing “The Star-Spangled Banner” are practices associated with being a citizen.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Identify people important to the American political system.
        • Identify the contributions of people, past and present, such as George Washington, Rosa Parks, and the current president.
        • Use informational text to identify and discuss the contributions of individuals recognized on national holidays, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. Day and Presidents’ Day.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Describe the roles, rights, and responsibilities of being a member of the family and school.
        • Describe the roles, rights, and responsibilities of family members.
        • Describe the roles of members of the school, such as the principal, crossing guard, bus drivers, and teachers.
        • Identify and describe rights, and responsibilities in the classroom and family.

Grade 1

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Explain the importance of rules.
        • Explain how rules promote fairness, responsibility, and privacy in the school and community.
        • Identify leadership positions in the school and community and recognize their authority in keeping students safe, following rules, and maintaining order.
      • Identify and discuss the meaning of symbols and practices associated with the United States of America.
        • Identify and discuss the meaning of common symbols associated with the United States of America, such as the bald eagle, White House, and the Statue of Liberty.
        • Describe how actions, such as pledging allegiance to the American flag and singing “The Star-Spangled Banner” and “America” are associated with being a citizen.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Identify and describe people important to the American political system.
        • Describe the contributions of people, past and present, such as George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the current president.
        • Explain how contributions of people may be recognized with holidays and celebrations, such as Presidents’ Day and Veterans’ Day.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Describe the rights and responsibilities of being a participating member of the family, school and neighborhood.
        • Identify the rights, responsibilities and choices that students have in the family, school, and neighborhood.
        • Demonstrate ways to work together to maintain a clean and safe home, school, and neighborhood environment.

Grade 2

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Explain how rules and laws are made and necessary to maintain order and protect citizens.
        • Explain how school and community rules promote orderliness, fairness, responsibility, privacy, and safety.
        • Identify leadership positions and organizations in the community and explain how they can be helpful in maintaining safety and order.
      • Explain how democratic skills and attitudes are associated with being a responsible citizen.
        • Use appropriate informational text to develop an understanding of democratic skills and attitudes, such as rights and responsibilities, respect, fairness, honesty, loyalty, and courage.
        • Connect certain people, symbols, songs and poems to the ideals they represent, such as George Washington portrays leadership, the American flag represents loyalty and respect, and the Star Spangled Banner represents courage and freedom.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Explain how contributions and events are important to the American political system.
        • Describe the contributions of local government leaders and current leaders of their school and community, such as county executives, county council or mayor, and city council.
        • Explain how contributions of people recognized in holidays, such as Memorial Day and Constitution Day, represent democratic beliefs and attitudes, that include rights and responsibilities, loyalty, respect, and courage.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Describe the rights and responsibilities of being a participating member of the school and the community.
        • Recognize and describe how making choices affects self, family, school, and community.
        • Identify concerns in the community, such as safety issues and pollution problems and ways to resolve these concerns.

Grade 3

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Explain the role of individuals and groups in creating rules and laws to maintain order, protect citizens, and provide services.
        • Identify local government leaders, such as the mayor, county council members or commissioners, and county executive and explain their role in protecting citizens and maintaining order.
        • Explain the consequences of violating rules and laws.
        • Describe the selection process and duties of local officials who make, apply, and enforce laws through government.
      • Explain how certain practices are connected with the democratic principles (skills, attitudes, and dispositions) of being a citizen.
        • Identify and explain democratic principles, such as individual rights and responsibilities, patriotism, common good, justice and equality.
        • Describe practices such as voting, following rules, volunteering, and recognizing national holidays associated with democratic principles.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Explain how people and events have contributed to the American political system.
        • Describe the contributions of local government leaders such as county executives, county council, mayor and city council.
        • Describe the contributions of people who contributed to the common good of society.
      • Analyze the role of individual and group participation in creating a supportive community.
        • Explain the decision making process used to accomplish a community goal or solve a community problem.
        • Explain the roles and responsibilities of effective citizens in a political process.
        • Describe the actions of people who have made a positive difference in their community, such as community and civic leaders, and organizations.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Explain the rights and responsibilities of being a member of the school and the community.
        • Describe the responsibilities of being an effective citizen, such as cleaning up your neighborhood, being informed, obeying rules and laws, participating in class decisions, and volunteering.

Grade 4

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Trace how the political structure in early Maryland developed and changed over time.
      • Describe how the colony of Maryland was established and governed including the establishment of rule of law and power with authority, such as Proprietorships, Royal Governor, and early General Assembly.
      • Explain the importance of the Office of the Governor and the Court of Appeals.
        • Outline the structure and function of the Maryland General Assembly and the roles of state senators and delegates.
      • Analyze the documents, and democratic ideas that developed in the Maryland Colony.
        • Analyze how colonial law influenced individuals in Maryland and other colonies, such as indentured servants contracts, Tolerance Acts of 1649, Maryland Charter of 1632.
        • Describe how the Maryland State Constitution includes democratic principles and values.
      • Analyze the role of Maryland government regarding public policy and issues.
        • Analyze perspectives and policies in Maryland regarding historic and current public issues.
        • Explain the effect that regional interests have on shaping government policy in and around Maryland, such as Chesapeake Bay issues, availability of land for mining, land use.
        • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Analyze how individuals and groups contributed to the political system in Maryland.
        • Describe the contributions of 17th century English settlers who influenced the early political structure.
        • Research the role of Marylanders who influenced the building of our new nation, such as the Sons of Liberty, William Paca, Charles Carroll, Thomas Stone, and Samuel Chase.
      • Defend the importance of civic participation as a citizen of Maryland.
        • Identify various sources of information that are available to citizens to make political decisions.
        • Analyze ways people can participate in the political process including voting, petitioning elected officials, and volunteering.
        • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Describe rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in Maryland.
        • Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, and press, and explain why these responsibilities are important.
        • Describe the role of Maryland state judiciary system.
      • Explain how Maryland government protects the rights of individuals and groups.
        • Describe the rule of law and explain how it impacts individuals and groups.
        • Describe the balance between private life and government in providing order and protecting rights.

Grade 5

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Examine the early foundations, functions, and purposes of government.
        • Describe how the European policies affected the interactions of explorers and colonists with Native Americans, such as the French and Indian War.
        • Explain and clarify how Europe’s philosophies and policies affected the political structure of the early American Colonies.
        • Identify and summarize how democratic principles, such as rule of law, limited government, consent of the governed, popular sovereignty, representative democracy, and the limitation of power influenced our founding documents.
        • Trace the development of early democratic ideas and practices that emerged during the early colonial period, including the significance of representative assemblies and town meetings.
      • Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices that are the foundations of our political systems.
        • Explain and report on the early examples of self-government, such as the Mayflower Compact and the House of Burgesses.
        • Analyze the successes and failures in meeting the challenges of governing under Articles of Confederation.
        • Explain the significance of principles in the development of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Preamble, U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
        • Describe the three branches of government and their individual powers and responsibilities, such as separation of powers and checks and balances.
      • Analyze the roles of colonial government regarding public policy and issues.
        • Identify the effect that regional interests and perspectives had on shaping government policy, and compare such as middle class v. gentry, plantation owners v. proprietors.
        • Analyze how geographic information influenced the formation of policy, such as the Proclamation of 1763.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Analyze how individuals’ roles and perspectives shape the American political system.
        • Examine the contributions of people associated with the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the framing of the Constitution, such as James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, and George Washington.
        • Examine how the federalists and anti-federalist perspectives influenced government.
      • Analyze the importance of civic participation as a citizen of the United States.
        • Analyze the usefulness of various sources of information used to make political decisions.
        • Compare ways people can participate in the political process including voting, petitioning elected officials, and volunteering.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Describe individual rights and responsibilities in the United States.
        • Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, and press, and explain why these responsibilities are important.
        • Describe the power and responsibility of the Supreme Court including the power of judicial review.
      • Evaluate how the United States government protects the rights of individuals and groups.
        • Explain the balance between providing for the common good and protecting individual rights.
    • Analyze how government needs to provide more protection and order during times of crisis, such as the natural disasters and threats to national security.
      • Examine the principle of due process.
        • Describe the due process protections in the Bill of Rights.

Grade 6

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Examine the necessity and purpose of government in early world history.
        • Identify and compare forms of government and various distributions of power, such as those found in ancient civilizations, dynastic China, absolute and constitutional monarchies.
        • Summarize the positions taken on government by political philosophers from early civilizations through the Middle Ages.
      • Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices in early world history that are the foundations of political systems.
        • Examine and report on the roots of democratic principles in World History, such as Sumerian written law, Hammurabi’s Code, Greek city-states, Roman Republicanism, and the British Constitution (Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights).
        • Examine the decline of feudalism and the emergence of monarchies.
      • Analyze the roles of institutions and governments in early world history regarding public policy and issues.
        • Describe the conflict between the church and the state in the formation and implementation of policy.
        • Analyze perspectives regarding issues in a feudal society, such as the church leaders v. lords of the manor, joining the Crusades, the growth of trade.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Analyze the methods used by individuals and groups to shape governmental policy and actions in early world history.
        • Compare methods used in early world history to change governments, such as coups, elections and revolts.
        • Examine the role of citizens in Greek city-states and the Roman Republic/Empire.
        • Examine how religion shaped and influenced government policy.
      • Analyze the importance of civic participation as a citizen of early world history.
        • Analyze the usefulness of various sources of information used to make political decisions.
        • Explain why common people did not have a voice in ancient civilizations.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Analyze the individual rights and responsibilities in an ancient world civilization.
        • Describe the importance of citizenship in ancient Rome and Greece.
        • Describe the significance of Hammurabi’s Code and how it defined rights of citizens.
      • Evaluate how ancient governments around the world protected or failed to protect the rights of individuals and groups.
        • Explain how the Roman Republic and the rule of the Senate affected individuals and groups.
        • Compare power and authority of rulers in Ancient Egypt, India, Persia and China v. the protection of citizens in Greek city-states.
        • Examine the balance between providing for the common good of the manor v. the rights of the individual serfs.

Grade 7

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Analyze the characteristics and structure of various systems of government around the world.
        • Describe and compare the advantages and disadvantages of limited governments, such as representative democracy and parliamentary democracy.
        • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of unlimited government, such as authoritarian and dictatorships.
        • Explain and demonstrate how nation-states interact with each other.
        • Using multi-perspectives, describe and trace how past events assisted or impeded the development of nations, such as the founding of Israel, the break up of the Soviet Union.
      • Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices that are the foundations of political systems around the world.
        • Examine and report examples of historic events, documents and practices that have influenced individuals and groups around the world, such as the UN Declaration of Rights, German reunification, the formation of NATO, and Apartheid.
      • Analyze the roles of governments around the world regarding public policy and issues.
        • Evaluate the effectiveness of the various policies of governments in addressing issues, such as health, poverty, crime, security, and environmental concerns.
        • Analyze the effects that different world issues have on shaping international responses, such as rainforest conservation, pollution, climate change, and energy sources (oil drilling, coal, nuclear).
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Analyze the methods used by individuals and groups to shape governmental policy and actions.
        • Compare methods used to change governments, such as coups, elections and revolts.
        • Evaluate ways citizens use, monitor and influence the formation and implementation of public policy.
        • Describe how political parties and special interest groups influence and change government policy, such as third parties, and non-governmental organizations.
        • Analyze the role of media and public opinion in shaping government policy and action.
      • Analyze the importance of civic participation as a citizen of the world.
        • Analyze the relevancy of sources and perspectives of information such as Internet sites and online newspapers.
        • Analyze the concept of a global citizen and how the awareness and responsibilities have changed during the information age.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Examine the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen of the world.
        • Justify the responsibilities associated with certain human rights in a global society such as a commitment to world peace and the elimination of poverty.
        • Explain how international rules and laws protect individual rights and protect the common good, such as the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, European Union membership, Geneva Conventions.
      • Analyze how governments, organizations, and policies around the world protect or fail to protect the rights of individuals and groups.
        • Analyze how the definition of the common good differs in limited and unlimited governments.
        • Debate the need to balance between providing for the common good and how protecting individual rights differ in governments around the world.
        • Describe the role of international organizations and policies in maintaining order during a time of crisis, such as the International Red Cross/Red Crescent, the United Nations, the Geneva Conventions, and the World Health Organization.

Grade 8

  • Standard 1 Political Science
    • The Foundations and Function of Government
      • Investigate the evolution of the U.S. political system as expressed in the United States Constitution.
        • Compare the confederate form of government under the Articles of Confederation with the federal form under the Constitution.
        • Explain and summarize the principles of federalism, popular sovereignty, rule of law, consent of the governed, separation of powers, checks and balances, majority rule, limited government and how they protect individual rights and impact the functioning of government.
        • Compare how the powers and functions of the three branches of government are divided and how they are shared to protect popular sovereignty.
        • Explain and summarize how the supremacy of the national government was defined by events, such as Shay’s Rebellion and early decisions of the Supreme Court, such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819).
        • Evaluate the role and responsibility of a legislator in a representative democracy.
        • Analyze the impact of precedence in the office of the President, such as the establishment of a cabinet and foreign policy.
        • Summarize an individual’s legal obligations to obey the law, pay taxes, serve on a jury and serve as a witness.
      • Analyze the impact of historic documents and practices that became the foundations of the American political system during the early national period.
        • Evaluate the power and authority of the government on individuals.
        • Identify the principles in European historic documents and show their connections to the development of American political ideology such as Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights.
        • Explain how the philosophies of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu influenced the principles that shaped United States government.
        • Describe the significance of principles in the development of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Preamble, U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
        • Describe the major debates and compromises that occurred during the Constitutional Convention and interpret their effects on the ratification process.
        • Describe the development of political parties and their effects on elections and political life.
        • Evaluate the significance of the Civil War Amendments (13th, 14th and 15th) and how they protected individual rights.
      • Evaluate roles and policies of the United States government regarding public policy and issues.
        • Examine the effect that national interests have on shaping government policy, such as the abolitionist movement and slavery, states’ rights, and regional commerce.
        • Evaluate regional and international perspectives regarding the formation and implementation of public policy, such as Washington’s Farewell Address, Monroe Doctrine, westward expansion, sectionalism, plantation holders in the South v. the industrialists in the North.
    • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • Analyze the influence of individuals and groups on shaping public policy.
        • Analyze the influence of the media on political life.
        • Evaluate ways the citizens should use, monitor and influence the formation and implementation of public policy.
        • Examine the roles and functions of political parties in the American system of government.
        • Explain how the media, interest groups, and public opinion affected elected officials and government policy prior to the Civil War.
      • Defend the importance of civic participation as a citizen of the United States.
        • Evaluate ways people can participate in the political process including voting, analyzing the media, petitioning elected officials, and volunteering.
        • Analyze the concept of citizenship and explain how the concept has changed from colonial times through Reconstruction.
        • Evaluate how various groups provide opportunities for individuals to participate in the political process.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • Examine the impact of governmental decisions on individual rights and responsibilities in the United States.
        • Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, and press, and explain why these responsibilities are important.
        • Explain how rules and laws protect individual rights and protect the common good.
        • Explain the significance of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madisonwhich established judicial review.
        • Describe the expansion of the powers of the national government in the decision of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland.
      • Explain how the United States government protected or failed to protect the rights of individuals and groups.
        • Describe significance and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.
        • Describe methods that were used to deny civil rights to women, African Americans and Native Americans.
        • Examine the use of Presidential power in Lincoln’s suspension of the writ of habeas corpus.
      • Examine the principle of due process.
        • Identify how due process of law protects individuals.
        • Describe the due process protections in the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment.

Grades 9-12

  • The student will demonstrate understanding of the structure and functions of government and politics in the United States.
    • The Foundations and Function of Government:
      • The student will evaluate how the principles of government assist or impede the functioning of government (1.1.2).
        • Assessment limits:
          • Concepts: federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, representative democracy, limited government, rule of law, individual rights and responsibilities, consent of the governed, majority rule, popular sovereignty, equal protection, and eminent domain.
          • Federal and Maryland state government: Legislative, Executive and Judicial powers, structure and organization.
          • Local government will be assessed in terms of powers and responsibilities.
          • Selection of National and Maryland state leaders: Electoral College and election/appointment processes.
        • Objectives:
          • Evaluate the principles of federalism, representative democracy, popular sovereignty, consent of the governed, separation of powers, checks and balances, rule of law, limited government, majority rule and how they protect individual rights and impact the functioning of government
          • Explain how the powers of government are divided and shared on the federal and state levels including delegated, reserved and concurrent powers
          • Analyze the principle of equal protection and how it has affected individual rights
          • Examine the purpose of eminent domain and how it affects citizens rights
          • Describe the formal process for amending the Constitution and why this process is necessary
          • Describe how the Constitution provides for checks and balances, such as Legislative overrides of vetoes, the limitations on the powers of the President and the appointment process (Unit 2)
          • Explain the powers denied to the national and state governments including: bills of attainder, ex post facto laws and the suspension of habeas corpus in the Constitution
          • Identify and explain the implied powers of Congress including the Elastic Clause (necessary and proper) and its effects on the functioning of government
          • Describe the bicameral structure, powers and organization of the United States Congress and the Maryland General Assembly
          • Describe legislative tools that can be used during the law making process, such as filibuster, conference committees, and over-riding a veto
          • Examine the powers and functions of local legislative bodies in Maryland, such as county councils, county commissioners, and city councils (Unit 3)
          • Describe the structure, powers and authority of the executive branch on the federal, state, and local levels
          • Analyze the degree to which the powers of the executive branch have changed over time, such as the War Powers Act (1973)
          • Describe the selection process for the president of the United States including the Electoral College (Unit 4)
          • Describe the powers, structure and organization of the Federal and Maryland court systems
          • Explain the difference between original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction
          • Explain how judicial review affects the functioning of government
          • Analyze why the United States Supreme Court justices’ interpretations of the Constitution change over time
          • Explain the methods of selecting federal justices/judges and Maryland judges (Unit 5)
          • Describe an individual’s legal obligations to obey the law, pay taxes, serve on a jury and serve as a witness
          • Describe the election process in the United States including the nominating process, primary and general elections (Unit 7)
      • The student will analyze historic documents to determine the basic principles of United States government and apply them to real-world situations (1.1.1).
        • Assessment limits:
          • Historic Documents: Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
          • Students are to know which rights/protections are addressed by the first ten amendments. Students are not expected to know the contents of any document by number. Other documents and amendments may be assessed, but excerpts will be provided.
          • Basic principles: federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, representative democracy, limited government, rule of law, individual rights and responsibilities, consent of the governed, majority rule, popular sovereignty, equal protection.
        • Objectives:
          • Describe the purposes of government, such as protecting individual rights, promoting the common good and providing economic security
          • Evaluate why governments are formed (Unit 1)
          • Examine the fundamental principles of government and law developed by leading philosophers, such as Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau
          • Explain how common law and historic documents, such as Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights and the Mayflower Compact influenced the Framers of the Constitution and its development
          • Analyze how the Constitution eliminated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
          • Examine the ratification process of the Constitution and the arguments that occurred including the view points of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists
          • Explain the fundamental principles of American government contained in the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, United States Constitution and the Maryland Constitution
          • Analyze the Preamble as the mission statement of the Constitution of the United States
          • Identify the rights in the Bill of Rights and how they protect individuals and limit the power of government
          • Apply the principles of federalism, checks and balances, rule of law, judicial review, separation of powers, consent of the governed and majority rule to real world situations
          • Explain how amendments to the Constitution expand or limit individual civil liberties, such as the 14th Amendment, 18th Amendment & proposed flag burning amendment (Unit 2)
      • The student will evaluate roles and policies the government has assumed regarding public issues (1.1.3).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Public issues: Environment (pollution, land use), Entitlements (Social Security, welfare) Health care and public health (costs, substance abuse, diseases) Censorship (media, technology) Crime (prevention, punishments) Equity (race, ethnicity, region, religion, gender, language, socioeconomic status, age, and individuals with disabilities.)
        • Objectives:
          • Describe how executive departments and agencies enforce governmental policies that address public issues, such as the Center for Disease Control (CDC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) (Unit 4)
          • Analyze significant issues in domestic policy and how they reflect the national interest, values and principles, such as healthcare, high level of security awareness, environmental concerns
          • Analyze the decisions made by the government on domestic issues and their effect on society, such as entitlements, socioeconomic status, individuals with disabilities, welfare reform
          • Evaluate the effects of crime and crime prevention as a public policy issue on government spending, quality of life and campaign issues
          • Evaluate the effect that international, national, and regional interests have on shaping environmental policy, such as logging forested areas, oil drilling, pollution, nuclear power, or alternative energy sources
          • Define public health and health care issues and evaluate existing government policy, such as smoking in public places, Medicare and Medicaid
          • Evaluate censorship of the media and technology as a public policy issue, such as obscene material and mass media, right to privacy, internet filters, hate speech, intellectual property, or invasive technology
          • Describe public policies that promote equity, such as affirmative action, and Higher Education Act Title IX (1972)
          • Describe how the United States provides national and international service programs to meet the critical needs of society, such as AmeriCorps, Peace Corps (Unit 6)
        • Individual and Group Participation in the Political System
      • The student will explain roles and analyze strategies individuals or groups may use to initiate change in governmental policy and institutions (1.1.4).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Political parties, interest groups, lobbyists, candidates, citizens, and the impact of the media on elections, elected officials and public opinion.
          • Referendum and initiative processes.
        • Objectives:
          • Explain how initiative, referendum, and recall are opportunities for individuals and groups to initiate change in state and local government policy
          • Analyze the external factors that influence the law-making process including the roles of the media, lobbyists, Political Action Committees (PACs), special-interest groups, citizens and public opinion (Unit 3)
          • Analyze the role of the media, special-interest groups, and public opinion in influencing the policy and decisions of the executive branch (Unit 4)
          • Evaluate how the media, political parties, special-interest groups, lobbyists, Political Action Committees (PACs) influence public opinion and government policies
          • Evaluate the reliability and influence of the media on elections, elected officials and public opinion
          • Describe the roles of political parties in the United States and how they influence elections, elected officials and public opinion
          • Describe how citizens, candidates, campaigns and campaign financing influence the political process in the United States
          • Analyze the roles of participants in the election process including voting, contributing, and electioneering
          • Analyze how citizens make informed decisions regarding candidates, issues, and policies
          • Describe the importance of being informed on civic issues, volunteering and public service
          • Analyze various methods that individuals or groups may use to influence laws and governmental policies including petitioning, letter writing and acts of civil disobedience (Unit 7)
  • The student will evaluate how the United States government has maintained a balance between protecting rights and maintaining order.
    • Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order
      • The student will analyze the impact of landmark Supreme Court decisions on governmental powers, rights, and responsibilities of citizens in our changing society (1.2.1).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright, Tinker v. Des Moines Board of Education,and New Jersey v. T.L.O.
          • Other cases that address the same issues could be used, but information about these cases will be provided in the item.
        • Objectives:
          • Analyze the United States Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison (1803) and the establishment of judicial review
          • Analyze the historical expansion of the powers of the federal government by examining the United States Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
          • Analyze how the Supreme Court decisions in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and Brown
            • Board of Education of Topeka (1954) impacted the rights of individuals
          • Examine the significance of the United States Supreme Court’s decisions on the rights of those accused of crimes in the cases Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
          • Examine the expansion or restriction of student rights in the cases Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969) and New Jersey v. T.L.O (1985)
          • Examine the impact of United States Supreme Court decisions on minority and civil rights issues, such as Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
          • Evaluate the decisions of the United States Supreme Court that have limited or expanded the liberties of citizens, such as Schenck v. U.S. (1919), Gitlow v. New York (1925), Engel v. Vitale (1962), Katz v. U.S. (1967), Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988), Texas v. Johnson (1989) (Unit 5)
      • The student will analyze legislation designed to protect the rights of individuals and groups and to promote equity in American society (1.2.2).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Legislation that addresses the rights of individuals and groups: minority and women’s rights, civil rights (affirmative action), and Native American rights. Legislation that addresses immigration policies. Information about the legislation will be provided in the item.
        • Objectives:
          • Evaluate the effectiveness of legislation in promoting equity and civil rights, such as the Civil Rights Act (1964), Voting Rights Act (1965), Higher Education Act Title IX (1972), Indian Education Act (1972), Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA 1990) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 1997)
        • Examine immigration policies the government has implemented, such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) and the Immigration Act of 1990
        • Identify the purpose of affirmative action and explain how the implementation of affirmative action has changed over time (Unit 3)
      • The student will evaluate the impact of governmental decisions and actions that have affected the rights of individuals and groups in American society and/or have affected maintaining order and/or safety (1.2.3).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Presidential use of power and executive orders on rights, order, and/or safety. National government agencies actions affecting rights, order and/or safety. State actions affecting rights, order and/or safety.
        • Objectives:
          • Describe the purpose, limitations and impact of executive orders in maintaining order and providing safety for citizens
          • Explain how executive departments and regulatory agencies assist in maintaining order and protecting the safety of the nation, such as the Department of Defense (DOD), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
          • Analyze the impact of national emergencies on the expansion of the powers of the government
          • Analyze the relationship between governmental authority and maintaining order under the rule of law
          • Describe how the governor of Maryland can use executive power to maintain order and safety in the state, such as calling out the National Guard in the case of a natural disaster (Unit 4)
          • Examine the impact of government decisions on individuals and groups, such as approval policies of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), environmental standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), regulations by the Maryland Department of the Environment
          • Evaluate the role of state and national governments concerning issues related to public safety and maintaining order, such as crime prevention, changes in driver’s license requirements, seat belt laws, and immunization shots (Unit 6)
      • The student will evaluate the principle of due process (1.2.4).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Fifth Amendment due process clause, Fourteenth Amendment due process clause, Procedural due process and the incorporation doctrine under the Fourteenth Amendment.
          • Information about due process cases will be provided in the item.
        • Objectives:
          • Explain the meaning of due process of law as set forth in the Fifth Amendment
          • Explain how procedural due process limits the powers of government and protects the accused
          • Explain why it is necessary to have both substantive and procedural due process
          • Analyze the implications and applications of the Fourteenth Amendment, focusing on the due process and equal protection clauses
          • Explain how the Supreme Court used the incorporation doctrine to expand the influence of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment in cases, such as Gitlow v. New York (1925), Near v. Minnesota (1931), Mapp v. Ohio (1961) (Unit 5)
      • The student will analyze elements, proceedings, and decisions related to criminal and civil law (1.2.5).
        • Assessment Limits:
          • Compare and contrast the elements, proceedings and decisions in civil and criminal law.
          • Civil law: plaintiff, defendant, contract, breach of contract, torts (lawsuits involving negligence), damages, preponderance of evidence, petit jury, and out-of-court settlements.
          • Criminal law: defendant, prosecutor, reasonable doubt, felony, misdemeanor, grand jury, indictment, probable cause, presumption of innocence, plea bargaining, writ of habeas corpus, and subpoena.
        • Objectives:
          • Describe the role of the courts in settling disputes between individuals
          • Analyze alternatives to litigation in the United States legal system for maintaining order and resolving conflicts including out-of-court settlements, arbitration and mediation
          • Identify the elements of civil law including: plaintiff, defendant, contract, breach of contract, torts, damages, preponderance of evidence, petit jury
          • Identify the elements of criminal law including: defendant, prosecutor, reasonable doubt, felony, misdemeanor, grand jury, indictment, probable cause, presumption of innocence, plea bargaining, writ of habeas corpus, subpoena
          • Compare the proceedings of civil and criminal cases including: grand jury, petit jury, indictment, standards of proof (beyond a reasonable doubt and preponderance of the evidence), plea bargaining, probable cause, writ of habeas corpus, and subpoena (Unit 5)