Michigan

Michigan Legislature Revised School Code Act 451 of 1976:

MCL 380.1278a (ii) At least 3 units of social science including 1 credit in United States history and geography, 1 credit in world history and geography, ½ credit in economics, and ½ credit in civics described in §1166(2).

MCL 380.1166 (2) The required civics class “shall include the form and functions of the federal, state, and local governments and shall stress the rights and responsibilities of citizens.”

Michigan Social Studies Standards/Grade Level Content Expectations for Social Studies

Kindergarten

  • Civics and Government
    • C2 Values and Principles of American Democracy: Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
      • K — C2.0.1 Identify our country’s flag as an important symbol of the United States.
      • K — C2.0.2 Explain why people do not have the right to do whatever they want (e.g., to promote fairness, ensure the common good, maintain safety).
      • K — C2.0.3 Describe fair ways for groups to make decisions.
    • C5 Role of the Citizen in American Democracy: Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating in government.
      • K — C5.0.1 Describe situations in which they demonstrated self-discipline and individual responsibility (e.g., caring for a pet, completing chores, following school rules, working in a group, taking turns).

Grade 1

  • History
    • H2 Living and Working Together in Families and Schools: Use historical thinking to understand the past.
      • 1 — H2.0.5 Use historical records and artifacts (e.g., photos, diaries, oral histories, and videos) to draw possible conclusions about family or school life in the past.
      • 1 — H2.0.6 Compare life today with life in the past using the criteria of family, school, jobs, or communication.
      • 1 — H2.0.7 Identify the events or people celebrated during United States national holidays and why we celebrate them (e.g., Independence Day, Constitution Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day; Presidents’ Day).
  • Civics and Government
    • C1 Purposes of Government: Explain why people create governments.
      • 1 — C1.0.1 Identify some reasons for rules in school (e.g., provide order, predictability, and safety).
      • 1 — C1.0.2 Give examples of the use of power with authority in school (e.g., principal, teacher or bus driver enforcing school rules).
      • 1 — C1.0.3 Give examples of the use of power without authority in school (e.g., types of bullying, taking cuts in line).
    • C2 Values and Principles of American Democracy: Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
      • 1 — C2.0.1 Explain how decisions can be made or how conflicts might be resolved in fair and just ways (e.g., majority rules).
      • 1 — C2.0.2 Identify important symbols of the United States of America (e.g., Statue of Liberty, Uncle Sam, White House, Bald Eagle).
    • C5 Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy: Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating in government.
      • 1 — C5.0.1 Describe some responsibilities people have at home and at school (e.g., taking care of oneself, respect for the rights of others, following rules, getting along with others).
      • 1 — C5.0.2 Identify situations in which people act as good citizens in the school community (e.g., thoughtful and effective participation in the school decisions, respect for the rights of others, respect for rule of law, voting, volunteering, compassion, courage, honesty)

Grade 2

  • Civics and Government
    • C1 Purposes of Government: Explain why people create governments.
      • 2 — C1.0.1 Explain why people form governments.
      • 2 — C1.0.2 Distinguish between government action and private action.
    • C2 Values and Principles of American Democracy: Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
      • 2 — C2.0.1 Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.
      • 2 — C2.0.2 Describe how the Pledge of Allegiance reflects the core democratic value of patriotism.
    • C3 Structure and Functions of Government: Describe the structure of government in the United States and how it functions to serve citizens.
      • 2 — C3.0.1 Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.
      • 2 — C3.0.2 Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.
      • 2 — C3.0.3 Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).
    • C5 Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating in government.
      • 2 — C5.0.1 Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.
      • 2 — C5.0.2 Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and explain why they are important in community life.
      • 2 — C5.0.3 Design and participate in community improvement projects that help or inform others.

Grade 3

  • Civics and Government
    • C1 Purposes of Government: Explain why people create governments.
      • 3 — C1.0.1 Give an example of how Michigan state government fulfills one of the purposes of government (e.g., protecting individual rights, promoting the common good, ensuring equal treatment under the law).
    • C2 Values and Principles of American Government: Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
      • 3 — C2.0.1 Describe how Michigan state government reflects the principle of representative government.
    • C3 Structure and Functions of Government: Describe the structure of government in the United States and how it functions to serve citizens.
      • 3 — C3.0.1 Distinguish between the roles of state and local government.
      • 3 — C3.0.2 Identify goods and services provided by the state government and describe how they are funded (e.g., taxes, fees, fines).
      • 3 — C3.0.3 Identify the three branches of state government in Michigan and the powers of each.
      • 3 — C3.0.4 Explain how state courts function to resolve conflict.
      • 3 — C3.0.5 Describe the purpose of the Michigan Constitution.
    • C5 Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy: Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating in government.
      • 3 — C5.0.1 Identify rights (e.g., freedom of speech, freedom of religion, right to own property) and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., respecting the rights of others, voting, obeying laws).

Grade 4

  • Civics and Government
    • C1Purposes of Government: Explain why people create governments.
      • 4 — C1.0.1 Identify questions political scientists ask in examining the United States (e.g., What does government do? What are the basic values and principles of American democracy? What is the relationship of the United States to other nations? What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy?).
      • 4 — C1.0.2 Explain probable consequences of an absence of government and of rules and laws.
      • 4 — C1.0.3 Describe the purposes of government as identified in the Preamble of the Constitution.
    • C2 Values and Principles of American Democracy Understand values and principles of American constitutional democracy.
      • 4 — C2.0.1 Explain how the principles of popular sovereignty, rule of law, checks and balances, separation of powers, and individual rights (e.g., freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of press) serve to limit the powers of the federal government as reflected in the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
      • 4 — C2.0.2 Identify situations in which specific rights guaranteed by the Constitution and Bill of Rights are involved (e.g., freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of press).
    • C3 Structure and Functions of Government: Describe the structure of government in the United States and how it functions to serve citizens.
      • 4 — C3.0.1 Give examples of ways the Constitution limits the powers of the federal government (e.g., election of public officers, separation of powers, checks and balances, Bill of Rights).
      • 4 — C3.0.2 Give examples of powers granted to the federal government (e.g., coining of money, declaring war) and those reserved for the states (e.g., driver’s license, marriage license).
      • 4 — C3.0.3 Describe the organizational structure of the federal government in the United States (legislative, executive, and judicial branches).
      • 4 — C3.0.4 Describe how the powers of the federal government are separated among the branches.
      • 4 — C3.0.5 Give examples of how the system of checks and balances limits the power of the federal government (e.g., presidential veto of legislation, courts declaring a law unconstitutional, congressional approval of judicial appointments).
      • 4 — C3.0.6 Describe how the President, members of the Congress, and justices of the Supreme Court come to power (e.g., elections versus appointments).
      • 4 — C3.0.7 Explain how the federal government uses taxing and spending to serve the purposes of government.
    • C5 Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy: Explain important rights and how, when, and where American citizens demonstrate their responsibilities by participating in government.
      • 4 — C5.0.1 Explain responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., initiating changes in laws or policy, holding public office, respecting the law, being informed and attentive to public issues, paying taxes, registering to vote and voting knowledgeably, serving as a juror).
      • 4 — C5.0.2 Describe the relationship between rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
      • 4 — C5.0.3 Explain why rights have limits.
      • 4 — C5.0.4 Describe ways citizens can work together to promote the values and principles of American democracy.

Grade 5

  • U3.1 Causes of the American Revolution: Identify the major political, economic, and ideological reasons for the American Revolution.
    • 5 — U3.1.1 Describe the role of the French and Indian War, how British policy toward the colonies in America changed from 1763 to 1775, and colonial dissatisfaction with the new policy. (National Geography Standard 13 p. 169 C, E)
    • 5 — U3.1.2 Describe the causes and effects of events such as the Stamp Act, Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, and the Boston Massacre.
    • 5 — U3.1.3 Using an event from the Revolutionary era (e.g., Boston Tea Party, quartering of soldiers, writs of assistance, closing of colonial legislatures), explain how British and colonial views on authority and the use of power without authority differed (views on representative government).
    • 5 — U3.1.4 Describe the role of the First and Second Continental Congress in unifying the colonies (addressing the Intolerable Acts, declaring independence, drafting the Articles of Confederation). (C)
    • 5 — U3.1.5 Use the Declaration of Independence to explain why the colonists wanted to separate from Great Britain and why they believed they had the right to do so. (C)
    • 5 — U3.1.6 Identify the role that key individuals played in leading the colonists to revolution, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Adams, and Thomas Paine.
    • 5 — U3.1.7 Describe how colonial experiences with self-government (e.g., Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses and town meetings) and ideas about government (e.g., purposes of government such as protecting individual rights and promoting the common good, natural rights, limited government, representative government) influenced the decision to declare independence. (C)
    • 5 — U3.1.8 Identify a problem confronting people in the colonies, identify alternative choices for addressing the problem with possible consequences, and describe the course of action taken.
  • U3.3 Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution Explain some of the challenges faced by the new nation under the Articles of Confederation, and analyze the development of the Constitution as a new plan for governing.
    • 5 — U3.3.1 Describe the powers of the national government and state governments under the Articles of Confederation. (C)
    • 5 — U3.3.2 Give examples of problems the country faced under the Articles of Confederation (e.g., lack of national army, competing currencies, reliance on state governments for money). (National Geography Standard 13, p. 169 C)
    • 5 — U3.3.3 Explain why the Constitutional Convention was convened and why the Constitution was written. (C)
    • 5 — U3.3.4 Describe the issues over representation and slavery the Framers faced at the Constitutional Convention and how they were addressed in the Constitution (Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise). (National Geography Standard 9, p. 160, C)
    • 5 — U3.3.5 Give reasons why the Framers wanted to limit the power of government (e.g., fear of a strong executive, representative government, importance of individual rights). (C)
    • 5 — U3.3.6 Describe the principle of federalism and how it is expressed through the sharing and distribution of power as stated in the Constitution (e.g., enumerated and reserved powers). (C)
    • 5 — U3.3.7 Describe the concern that some people had about individual rights and why the inclusion of a Bill of Rights was needed for ratification. (C)
    • 5 — U3.3.8 Describe the rights found in the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Amendments to the United States Constitution.

Grade 6

  • Civics and Government
    • C1 Purpose of Government: Analyze how people identify, organize, and accomplish the purposes of government.
      • C1.1 Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government: Describe Civic Life, Politics, and Government and explain their relationships.
        • 6 — C1.1.1 Analyze competing ideas about the purposes government should serve in a democracy and in a dictatorship (e.g., protecting individual rights, promoting the common good, providing economic security, molding the character of citizens, or promoting a particular religion).
    • C3 Structure and Functions of Government: Describe the major activities of government, including making and enforcing laws, providing services and benefits to individuals and groups, assigning individual and collective responsibilities, generating revenue, and providing national security.
      • C3.6 Characteristics of Nation-States Describe the characteristics of nation-states and how they may interact.
        • 6 — C3.6.1 Define the characteristics of a nation-state (a specific territory, clearly defined boundaries, citizens, and jurisdiction over people who reside there, laws, and government), and how Western Hemisphere nations interact.
        • 6 — C3.6.2 Compare and contrast a military dictatorship such as Cuba, a presidential system of representative democracy such as the United States, and a parliamentary system of representative democracy such as Canada.

Grade 7

  • Civics and Government
    • C1 Purposes of Government: Analyze how people identify, organize, and accomplish the purposes of government.
      • C1.1 Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government Describe civic life, politics and government and explain their relationships. Political scientists analyze why people engage in the political process; the role citizens play in civic life; the concepts of power, authority, sovereignty, and legitimacy; and competing arguments about the purpose and necessity of government.
        • 7 — C1.1.1 Explain how the purposes served by government affect relationships between the individual, government, and society as a whole and the differences that occur in monarchies, theocracies, dictatorships, and representative governments.
    • C3 Structure and Functions of Government: Explain that governments are structured to serve the people. Describe the major activities of government, including making and enforcing laws, providing services and benefits to individuals and groups, assigning individual and collective responsibilities, generating revenue, and providing national security.
      • C3.6 Characteristics of Nation-States Describe the characteristics of nation-states and how nation-states may interact. The world is organized politically into nation-states; each nation- state claims sovereignty over a defined territory and jurisdiction and everyone in it; these nation-states interact with one another using formal agreements and sanctions, which may be peaceful or may involve the use of force.
        • 7 — C3.6.1 Define the characteristics of a nation-state (a specific territory, clearly defined boundaries, citizens, and jurisdiction over people who reside there, laws, and government) and how Eastern Hemisphere nations interact.

Grade 8

  • U3 USHG ERA 3- Revolution and the New Nation
    • U3.3 Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution Explain the challenges faced by the new nation and analyze the development of the Constitution as a new plan for governing. [Foundations for Civics HSCE Standard 2.2.]
      • 8 — U3.3.1 Explain the reasons for the adoption and subsequent failure of the Articles of Confederation (e.g., why its drafters created a weak central government, challenges the nation faced under the Articles, Shays’ Rebellion, disputes over western lands). (C2)
      • 8 — U3.3.2 Identify economic and political questions facing the nation during the period of the Articles of Confederation and the opening of the Constitutional Convention. (E1.4)
      • 8 — U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention including the distribution of political power, conduct of foreign affairs, rights of individuals, rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery as a regional and federal issue.
      • 8 — U3.3.4 Explain how the new constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues including sharing, separating, and checking of power among federal government institutions, dual sovereignty (state-federal power), rights of individuals, the Electoral College, the Three- Fifths Compromise, and the Great Compromise.
      • 8 — U3.3.5 Analyze the debates over the ratification of the Constitution from the perspectives of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and describe how the states ratified the Constitution. (C2) (National Geography Standard 3, p. 148)
      • 8 — U3.3.6 Explain how the Bill of Rights reflected the concept of limited government, protections of basic freedoms, and the fear of many Americans of a strong central government. (C3)
      • 8 — U3.3.7 Using important documents (e.g., Mayflower Compact, Iroquois Confederacy, Common Sense, Declaration of Independence, Northwest Ordinance, Federalist Papers), describe the historical and philosophical origins of constitutional government in the United States using the ideas of social compact, limited government, natural rights, right of revolution, separation of powers, bicameralism, republicanism, and popular participation in government. (C2)
    • U5.3 Reconstruction: Using evidence, develop an argument regarding the character and consequences of Reconstruction.
      • 8 — U5.3.1 Describe the different positions concerning the reconstruction of Southern society and the nation, including the positions of President Abraham Lincoln, President Andrew Johnson, Republicans, and African Americans.
      • 8 — U5.3.2 Describe the early responses to the end of the Civil War by describing the policies of the Freedmen’s Bureau (E2.2) restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and Black Codes. (C2, C5)
      • 8 — U5.3.3 Describe the new role of African Americans in local, state and federal government in the years after the Civil War and the resistance of Southern whites to this change, including the Ku Klux Klan. (C2, C5) (National Geography Standard 10, p. 162)
      • 8 — U5.3.4 Analyze the intent and the effect of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution.
      • 8 — U5.3.5 Explain the decision to remove Union troops in 1877 and describe its impact on Americans.

High School

  • U.S. History and Geography
    • F1 Political and Intellectual Transformations of America to 1877
      • F1.1 Identify the core ideals of American society as reflected in the documents below and analyze the ways that American society moved toward and/or away from its core ideals.
        • Declaration of Independence
        • the U.S. Constitution (including the Preamble)
        • Bill of Rights
        • the Gettysburg Address
        • 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
      • F1.2 Using the American Revolution, the creation and adoption of the Constitution, and the Civil War as touchstones, develop an argument/narrative about the changing character of American political society and the roles of key individuals across cultures in prompting/supporting the change by discussing:
        • the birth of republican government, including the rule of law, inalienable rights, equality, and limited government
        • the development of governmental roles in American life
        • and competing views of the responsibilities of governments (federal, state, and local)
        • changes in suffrage qualifications
        • the development of political parties
        • America’s political and economic role in the world (National Geography Standard 13, p. 210)
    • USHG ERA 6- The Development of an industrial, urban, and global United States
      • 6.3 Progressivism and Reform – Select and evaluate major public and social issues emerging from the changes in industrial, urban, and global America during this period; analyze the solutions or resolutions developed by Americans, and their consequences (positive/ negative — anticipated/unanticipated) including, but not limited to, the following:
        • 6.3.1 Social Issues — Describe at least three significant problems or issues created by America’s industrial and urban transformation between 1895 and 1930 (e.g., urban and rural poverty and blight, child labor, immigration, political corruption, public health, poor working conditions, and monopolies).
        • 6.3.2 Causes and Consequences of Progressive Reform- Analyze the causes, consequences, and limitations of Progressive reform in the following areas:
          • major changes in the Constitution, including 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments
          • new regulatory legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Sherman and Clayton Anti- Trust Acts)
          • the Supreme Court’s role in supporting or slowing reform
          • role of reform organizations, movements and individuals in promoting change (e.g., Women’s Christian Temperance Union, settlement house movement, conservation movement, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, Eugene Debs, W.E.B. DuBois, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell)(National Geography Standard 14, p. 212)
          • efforts to expand and restrict the practices of democracy as reflected in post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and immigrants (National Geography Standards 9 and 10; pp. 201 and 203)
        • 6.3.3 Women’s Suffrage- Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand women’s rights, including the work of important leaders (e.g., Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) and the eventual ratification of the 19th Amendment.
    • USHG ERA 7- The Great Depression and WWII (1920-1945)
      • 7.1.3 The New Deal — Explain and evaluate Roosevelt’s New Deal Policies including
        • expanding the federal government’s responsibilities to protect the environment (e.g., Dust Bowl and the Tennessee Valley), meet challenges of unemployment, address the needs of workers, farmers, poor, and elderly (National Geography Standard 14, p. 212)
        • opposition to the New Deal and the impact of the Supreme Court in striking down and then accepting New Deal laws
        • consequences of New Deal policies (e.g., promoting workers’ rights, development of Social Security program, and banking and financial regulation conservation practices, crop subsidies)(National Geography Standard 16, p. 216)
    • USHG ERA 8- Post WWII United States (1945-1989)
      • 8.2 Domestic Policies: Examine, analyze, and explain demographic changes, domestic policies, conflicts, and tensions in Post- WWII America.
        • Domestic Conflicts and Tensions- Using core democratic values, analyze and evaluate the competing perspectives and controversies among Americans generated by U.S. Supreme Court decisions (e.g., Roe v Wade, Gideon, Miranda, Tinker, Hazelwood), the Vietnam War (anti-war and counter-cultural movements), environmental movement, women’s rights movement, and the constitutional crisis generated by the Watergate scandal. (National Geography Standard 16, p. 216)
      • 8.3 Civil Rights in the Post-WWII Era Examine and analyze the Civil Rights Movement using key events, people, and organizations.
        • 8.3.1 Civil Rights Movement- Analyze the key events, ideals, documents, and organizations in the struggle for civil rights by African Americans including:
          • the impact of WWII and the Cold War (e.g., racial and gender integration of the military)
          • Supreme Court decisions and governmental actions (e.g., Brown v. Board (1954), Civil Rights Act (1957), Little Rock schools desegregation, Civil Rights Act (1964), Voting Rights Act (1965))
          • protest movements, organizations, and civil actions (e.g., integration of baseball, Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956), March on Washington (1963), freedom rides, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Nation of Islam, Black Panthers)
          • resistance to Civil Rights (National Geography Standard 6, p. 195) (National Geography Standard 10, p. 203)
  • Civics
    • C1 Conceptual Foundations of Civic and Political Life
      • 1.1 Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government – Explain the meaning of civic life, politics, and government through the investigation of such questions as: What is civic life? What are politics? What is government? What are the purposes of politics and government?
        • Identify roles citizens play in civic and private life, with emphasis on leadership.
        • Explain and provide examples of the concepts “power,” “legitimacy,” “authority,” and “sovereignty.”
        • Identify and explain competing arguments about the necessity and purposes of government (such as to protect inalienable rights, promote the general welfare, resolve conflicts, promote equality, and establish justice for all). (See USHG F1.1; F1.2; 8.3.2)
        • Explain the purposes of politics, why people engage in the political process, and what the political process can achieve (e.g., promote the greater good, promote self-interest, advance solutions to public issues and problems, achieve a just society). (See USHG F1.1; F1.2; 6.3.2; 8.3.1)
      • 1.2 Alternative Forms of Government Describe constitutional government and contrast it with other forms of government through the investigation of such questions as: What are essential characteristics of limited and unlimited government? What is constitutional government? What forms can a constitutional government take?
        • Identify, distinguish among, and provide examples of different forms of governmental structures including anarchy, monarchy, military junta, aristocracy, democracy, authoritarian, constitutional republic, fascist, communist, socialist, and theocratic states.
        • Explain the purposes and uses of constitutions in defining and limiting government, distinguishing between historical and contemporary examples of constitutional governments that failed to limit power (e.g., Nazi Germany and Stalinist Soviet Union) and successful constitutional governments (e.g., contemporary Germany and United Kingdom). (See USHG 7.2.1; WHG 7.3)
        • Compare and contrast parliamentary, federal, confederal, and unitary systems of government by analyzing similarities and differences in sovereignty, diffusion of power, and institutional structure. (See USHG F1.1; F1.2)
        • Compare and contrast direct and representative democracy. (See USHG F1.1; F1.2)
    • C2 Origins and Foundations of Government of the United States of America
      • 2.1 Origins of American Constitutional Government (Note: Much of this content should have been an essential feature of students’ 5th and 8th grade coursework. High School U.S. History and Geography teachers, however, revisit this in USHG Foundational Expectations 1.1, 1.2, and 2.1.) Explain the fundamental ideas and principles of American constitutional government and their philosophical and historical origins through investigation of such questions as: What are the philosophical and historical roots of the foundational values of American constitutional government? What are the fundamental principles of American constitutional government?
        • 2.1.1 Explain the historical and philosophical origins of American constitutional government and evaluate the influence of ideas found in the Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact, Iroquois Confederation, Northwest Ordinance, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and selected Federalist Papers (the 10th, 14th, 51st), John Locke’s Second Treatise, Montesquieu’s Spirit of Laws, Paine’s Common Sense.
        • 2.1.2 Explain the significance of the major debates and compromises underlying the formation and ratification of American constitutional government including the Virginia and New Jersey plans, the Great Compromise, debates between Federalists and Anti- Federalists, debates over slavery, and the promise for a bill of rights after ratification.
        • 2.1.3 Explain how the Declaration of Independence, Constitution and Bill of Rights reflected political principles of popular sovereignty, rule of law, checks and balances, separation of powers, social compact, natural rights, individual rights, separation of church and state, republicanism and federalism.
        • 2.1.4 Explain challenges and modifications to American constitutional government as a result of significant historical events such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, expansion of suffrage, the Great Depression, and the civil rights movement.
      • 2.2 Foundational Values and Constitutional Principles of American Government: Explain how the American idea of constitutional government has shaped a distinctive American society through the investigation of such questions as: How have the fundamental values and principles of American constitutional government shaped American society?
        • 2.2.1 Identify and explain the fundamental values of America’s constitutional republic (e.g., life, liberty, property, the pursuit of happiness, the common good, justice, equality, diversity, authority, participation, and patriotism) and their reflection in the principles of the United States Constitution (e.g., popular sovereignty, republicanism, rule of law, checks and balances, separation of powers, and federalism).
        • 2.2.2 Explain and evaluate how Americans, either through individual or collective actions, use constitutional principles and fundamental values to narrow gaps between American ideals and reality with respect to minorities, women, and the disadvantaged. (See USHG 6.1.2; 6.3.2; 7.1.3; 8.3)
        • 2.2.3 Use past and present policies to analyze conflicts that arise in society due to competing constitutional principles or fundamental values (e.g., liberty and authority, justice and equality, individual rights, and the common good). (See USHG 6.3.2; 8.2.4; 8.3.1; 9.2.2)
        • 2.2.4 Analyze and explain ideas about fundamental values like liberty, justice, and equality found in a range of documents (e.g., Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech and “Letter from Birmingham City Jail,” the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of Sentiments, the Equal Rights Amendment, and the Patriot Act). (See USHG F1.1; 8.3.2; 9.2.2)
        • 2.2.5 Use examples to investigate why people may agree on constitutional principles and fundamental values in the abstract, yet disagree over their meaning when they are applied to specific situations. (See USHG 8.2.4)
    • C3 Structure and Functions of Government in The United States of America
      • 3.1 Structure, Functions, and Enumerated Powers of National Government – Describe how the national government is organized and what it does through the investigation of such questions as: What is the structure of the national government? What are the functions of the national government? What are its enumerated powers?
        • 3.1.1 Analyze the purposes, organization, functions, and processes of the legislative branch as enumerated in Article I of the Constitution.
        • 3.1.2 Analyze the purposes, organization, functions, and processes of the executive branch as enumerated in Article II of the Constitution.
        • 3.1.3 Analyze the purposes, organization, functions, and processes of the judicial branch as enumerated in Article III of the Constitution.
        • 3.1.4 Identify the role of independent regulatory agencies in the federal bureaucracy (e.g., Federal Reserve Board, Food and Drug Administration, Federal Communications Commission). (See USHG 6.3.2)
        • 3.1.5 Use case studies or examples to examine tensions between the three branches of government (e.g., powers of the purse and impeachment, advise and consent, veto power, and judicial review).
        • 3.1.6 Evaluate major sources of revenue for the national government, including the constitutional provisions for taxing its citizens.
        • 3.1.7 Explain why the federal government is one of enumerated powers while state governments are those of reserved powers.
      • 3.2 Powers and Limits on Powers – Identify how power and responsibility are distributed, shared, and limited in American constitutional government through the investigation of such questions as: How are power and responsibility distributed, shared, and limited in the government established by the United States Constitution?
        • 3.2.1 Explain how the principles of enumerated powers, federalism, separation of powers, bicameralism, checks and balances, republicanism, rule of law, individual rights, inalienable rights, separation of church and state, and popular sovereignty serve to limit the power of government.
        • 3.2.2 Use court cases to explain how the Constitution is maintained as the supreme law of the land (e.g., Marbury v. Madison, Gibbons v. Ogden, McCulloch v. Maryland).
        • 3.2.3 Identify specific provisions in the Constitution that limit the power of the federal government.
        • 3.2.4 Explain the role of the Bill of Rights and each of its amendments in restraining the power of government over individuals. (See USHG F1.1)
        • 3.2.5 Analyze the role of subsequent amendments to the Constitution in extending or limiting the power of government, including the Civil War/Reconstruction Amendments and those expanding suffrage. (See USHG F1.1)
      • 3.3 Structure and Functions of State and Local Governments – Describe how state and local governments are organized and what they do through the investigation of such questions as: What are the structures and functions of state and local government?
        • 3.3.1 Describe limits the U.S. Constitution places on powers of the states (e.g., prohibitions against coining money, impairing interstate commerce, making treaties with foreign governments) and on the federal government’s power over the states (e.g., federal government cannot abolish a state, Tenth Amendment reserves powers to the states).
        • 3.3.2 Identify and define states’ reserved and concurrent powers.
        • 3.3.3 Explain the tension among federal, state, and local governmental power using the necessary and proper clause, the commerce clause, and the Tenth Amendment.
        • 3.3.4 Describe how state and local governments are organized, their major responsibilities, and how they affect the lives of citizens.
        • 3.3.5 Describe the mechanisms by which citizens monitor and influence state and local governments (e.g., referendum, initiative, recall).
        • 3.3.6 Evaluate the major sources of revenue for state and local governments.
        • 3.3.7 Explain the role of state constitutions in state governments.
      • 3.4 System of Law and Laws: Explain why the rule of law has a central place in American society through the investigation of such questions as: What is the role of law in the American political system? What is the importance of law in the American political system?
        • 3.4.1 Explain why the rule of law has a central place in American society (e.g., Supreme Court cases like Marbury v. Madison and U.S. v. Nixon; practices such as submitting bills to legal counsel to ensure congressional compliance with the law). (See USHG F1.1, 8.2.4)
        • 3.4.2 Describe what can happen in the absence or breakdown of the rule of law (e.g., Ku Klux Klan attacks, police corruption, organized crime, interfering with the right to vote, and perjury). (See USHG 8.3.5)
        • 3.4.3 Explain the meaning and importance of equal protection of the law (e.g., the 14th Amendment, Americans with Disabilities Act, equal opportunity legislation).
        • 3.4.4 Describe considerations and criteria that have been used to deny, limit, or extend protection of individual rights (e.g., clear and present danger, time, place and manner restrictions on speech, compelling government interest, security, libel or slander, public safety, and equal opportunity).
        • 3.4.5 Analyze the various levels and responsibilities of courts in the federal and state judicial system and explain the relationships among them.
    • C5 Citizenship in the United State of America
      • 5.1 The Meaning of Citizenship in the United States of America: Describe the meaning of citizenship in the United States through the investigation of such questions as: What is the meaning of citizenship in the United States? What are the rights, responsibilities, and characteristics of citizenship in the United States?
        • 5.1.1 Using examples, explain the idea and meaning of citizenship in the United States of America, and the rights and responsibilities of American citizens (e.g., people participate in public life, know about the laws that govern society, respect and obey those laws, participate in political life, stay informed and attentive about public issues, and voting).
        • 5.1.2 Compare the rights of citizenship Americans have as a member of a state and the nation.
      • 5.2 Becoming a Citizen: Describe how one becomes a citizen in the United States through birth or naturalization by investigating the question: How does one become a citizen in the United States?
        • 5.2.1 Explain the distinction between citizens by birth, naturalized citizens, and non- citizens.
        • 5.2.2 Describe the distinction between legal and illegal immigration and the process by which legal immigrants can become citizens.
        • 5.2.3 Evaluate the criteria used for admission to citizenship in the United States and how Americans expanded citizenship over the centuries (e.g., removing limitations of suffrage).
      • 5.3 Rights of Citizenship: Identify the rights of citizenship by investigating the question: What are the personal, political, and economic rights of citizens in the United States?
        • 5.3.1 Identify and explain personal rights (e.g., freedom of thought, conscience, expression, association, movement and residence, the right to privacy, personal autonomy, due process of law, free exercise of religion, and equal protection of the law).
        • 5.3.2 Identify and explain political rights (e.g., freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition; and the right to vote and run for public office).
        • 5.3.3 Identify and explain economic rights (e.g., the right to acquire, use, transfer, and dispose of property, choose one’s work and change employment, join labor unions and professional associations, establish and operate a business, copyright protection, enter into lawful contracts, and just compensation for the taking of private property for public use).
        • 5.3.4 Describe the relationship between personal, political, and economic rights and how they can sometimes conflict.
        • 5.3.5 Explain considerations and criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights.
        • 5.3.6 Describe the rights protected by the First Amendment, and using case studies and examples, explore the limit and scope of First Amendment rights.
        • 5.3.7 Using the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Amendments, describe the rights of the accused; and using case studies and examples, explore the limit and scope of these rights.
        • 5.3.8 Explain and give examples of the role of the Fourteenth Amendment in extending the protection of individual rights against state action.
        • 5.3.9 Use examples to explain why rights are not unlimited and absolute.
      • 5.4 Responsibilities of Citizenship Identify the responsibilities associated with citizenship in the United States and the importance of those responsibilities in a democratic society through the investigation of questions such as: What are the responsibilities associated with citizenship in the United States? Why are those experiences considered important to the preservation of American constitutional government?
        • 5.4.1 Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and describe how they can sometimes conflict with each other.
        • 5.4.2 Describe the importance of citizens’ civic responsibilities including obeying the law, being informed and attentive to public issues, monitoring political leaders and governmental agencies, assuming leadership when appropriate, paying taxes, registering to vote and voting knowledgeably on candidates and issues, serving as a juror, serving in the armed forces, performing public service.
        • 5.4.3 Explain why meeting personal and civic responsibilities is important to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy.