Minnesota

Minnesota 2014 Statute, Chapter 120B. Curriculum and Assessment:

Minn. Stat. §120B.024.5 Students are required to complete “three and one-half credits of social studies, encompassing at least United States history, geography, government and citizenship, world history, and economics sufficient to satisfy all of the academic standards in social studies.”

 

Minnesota Social Studies Academic Standards

Minnesota’s Social Studies Standards feature a strand dedicated to Citizenship & Government. The strand includes the following sub-strands: “Civic Skills;” “Civic Values and Principles of Democracy;” “Rights and Responsibilities;” “Governmental Institutions and Political Processes;” and “Relationships of the U.S. to Other Nations and Organizations” (Minnesota Social Studies Standards)

Kindergarten

  • Understand that Democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 0.1.1.1.1 Demonstrate civic skills in a classroom that reflect an understanding of civic values.
  • Understand that the civic identity of the United States is shaped by historical figures, places and events, and by key foundational documents and other symbolically important artifacts.
    • 0.1.2.2.1 Describe symbols, songs and traditions that identify our nation and state.
  • Understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
    • 0.1.4.7.1 Identify examples of rules in the school community and explain why they exist; describe incentives for following rules and consequences for breaking rules.

Grade 1

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 1.1.1.1.1 Demonstrate ways good citizens participate in the civic life of their community; explain why participation is important.
  • Understand that the civic identity of the United States is shaped by historical figures, places and events and by key foundational documents and other symbolically important artifacts.
    • 1.1.2.2.1 Explain why and when the Pledge of Allegiance is recited; provide examples of basic flag etiquette and other demonstrations of patriotism.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 1.1.4.6.1 Identify the president of the United States; explain that voting determines who will be president.
  • Understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
    • 1.1.4.7.1 Identify characteristics of effective rules; participate in a process to establish rules.

Grade 2

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 2.1.1.1.1 Demonstrate voting skills, identify rules that keep a voting process fair, and explain why voting is important.
  • Understand that the civic identity of the United States is shaped by historical figures, places and events and by key foundational documents.
    • 2.1.2.2.1 Explain the importance of constitutions.
      • For example: Examples of constitutions— a classroom constitution, club charter, the United States Constitution.
  • Understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
    • 2.1.4.7.1 Compare and contrast student rules, rights and responsibilities at school with their rules, rights and responsibilities at home; explain the importance of obeying rules.

Grade 3

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 3.1.1.1.1 Identify ways people make a difference in the civic life of their communities, state, nation or world by working as individuals or groups to address a specific problem or need.
  • Understand that the United States is based on democratic values and principles that include liberty, individual rights, justice, equality, the rule of law, limited government, common good, popular sovereignty, majority rule and minority rights.
    • 3.1.2.3.1 Explain the importance of civic discourse (including speaking, listening, voting and respecting diverse viewpoints) and the principles of majority rule and minority rights.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 3.1.4.6.1 Describe the importance of the services provided by government; explain that they are funded through taxes and fees.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 3.1.4.6.2 Identify the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) and their primary functions.
      • For example: Primary functions—legislative branch makes laws, executive branch carries out laws, judicial branch decides if laws are broken.

Grade 4

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 4.1.1.1.1 describe how people take action to influence a decision on a specific issue; explain how local, state, national or tribal governments have addressed that issue.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 4.1.4.6.1 Describe tribal government and some of the services it provides; distinguish between United States and tribal forms of government.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 4.1.4.6.2 Identify the major roles and responsibilities of elected and appointed leaders in the community, state and nation; name some current leaders who function in these roles and how they are selected.

Grade 5

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 5.1.1.1.1 Simulate a historic event to show how civic engagement (voting, civil discourse about controversial issues and civic action) improves and sustains a democratic society, supports the general welfare, and protects the rights of individuals.
      • For example: Historic events—Constitutional Convention, a town meeting.
    • 5.1.1.1.2 Identify a public problem in the school or community, analyze the issue from multiple perspectives, and create an action plan to address it.
  • Understand that the civic identity of the United States is shaped by historical figures, places and events and by key foundational documents and other symbolically important artifacts.
    • 5.1.2.2.1 Identify historically significant people during the period of the American Revolution; explain how their actions contributed to the development of American political culture.
  • Understand that individuals in a republic have rights, duties and responsibilities.
    • 5.1.3.4.1 Explain specific protections that the Bill of Rights provides to individuals and the importance of these 10 amendments to the ratification of the United States Constitution.
      • For example: Protections— speech, religion (First Amendment), bare arms (Second Amendment), protections for people accused of crimes (Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth Amendments).
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 5.1.4.6.1 Explain the primary functions of the three branches of government and how the leaders of each branch are selected as established in the United States Constitution.
      • For example: Legislative branch makes laws; Congress is elected. Executive branch carries out laws; President is elected, cabinet members are appointed. Judicial branch decides if laws are broken; Supreme Court justices and federal judges are appointed.
    • 5.1.4.6.2 Describe how governmental power is limited through the principles of federalism, the separation of powers, and checks and balances.
    • 5.1.4.6.3 Identify taxes and fees collected and services provided by governments during colonial times; compare these to the taxes and fees collected and services provided by the government today.
  • Understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
    • 5.1.4.7.1 Explain how law limits the powers of government and the governed, protects individual rights and promotes the general welfare.
    • For example: Miranda v. Arizona, Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Understand that the divergence of colonial interests from those of England led to an independence movement that resulted in the American Revolution and the foundation of a new nation based on the ideals of self-government and liberty. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
    • 5.4.4.17.1 Identify major conflicts between the colonies and England following the Seven Years’ War; explain how these conflicts led to the American Revolution. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
    • 5.4.4.17.2 Describe the development of self-governance in the British colonies and explain the influence of this tradition on the American Revolution. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754- 1800)
      • For example: Colonial charters, Mayflower Compact, colonial assemblies.
    • 5.4.4.17.3 Identify the major events of the American Revolution culminating in the creation of a new and independent nation. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
    • 5.4.4.17.4 Compare and contrast the impact of the American Revolution on different groups within the 13 colonies that made up the new United States. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
    • 5.4.4.17.5 Describe the purposes of the founding documents and explain the basic principles of democracy that were set forth in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
      • For example: Consent of the governed, social contract, inalienable rights, individual rights and responsibilities, equality, rule of law, limited government, representative democracy.
    • 5.4.4.17.6 Describe the successes and failures of the national government under the Articles of Confederation and why it was ultimately discarded and replaced with the Constitution. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
    • 5.4.4.17.7 Describe the major issues that were debated at the Constitutional Convention. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754-1800)
      • For example: Distribution of political power, rights of individuals, rights of states, slavery, the “Great Compromise.”

Grade 6

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 6.1.1.1.1 Evaluate arguments about selected issues from diverse perspectives and frames of reference, noting the strengths, weaknesses and consequences associated with the decision made on each issue.
    • 6.1.1.1.2 Use graphic data to analyze information about a public issue in state or local government.
    • 6.1.1.1.3 Address a state or local policy issue by identifying key opposing positions, determining conflicting values and beliefs, defending and justifying a position with evidence, and developing strategies to persuade others to adopt this position.
  • Understand that individuals in a republic have rights, duties and responsibilities.
    • 6.1.3.4.1 Describe the establishment and expansion of rights over time, including the impact of key court cases, state legislation and constitutional amendments.
      • For example: Key court cases and state legislation— the Minnesota Human Rights Law, Brown v. Board of Education, Miranda v. Arizona.
  • Understand that citizenship and its rights and duties are established by law.
    • 6.1.3.5.1 Define citizenship in the United States and explain that individuals become citizens by birth or naturalization.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 6.1.4.6.1 Explain the relationship among the three branches of government: making laws by the legislative branch, implementing and enforcing laws by the executive branch, and interpreting laws by the judicial branch.
    • 6.1.4.6.2 Define federalism and describe the relationship between the powers of the federal and state governments.
    • 6.1.4.6.3 Identify the purpose of Minnesota’s Constitution; explain how the Minnesota Constitution organizes government and protects rights.
    • 6.1.4.6.4 Identify the major state and local (county, city, school board, township) governmental offices; describe the primary duties associated with them.
    • 6.1.4.6.5 Describe how laws are created; explain the differences between civil and criminal law; give examples of federal, state and local laws.
    • 6.1.4.6.7 Compare and contrast the basic structures, functions and ways of funding state and local governments.

Grade 7

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 7.1.1.1.1 Exhibit civic skills including participating in civic discussion on issues in the contemporary United States, demonstrating respect for the opinions of people or groups who have different perspectives, and reaching consensus.
  • Understand that the United States is based on democratic values and principles that include liberty, individual rights, justice, equality, the rule of law, limited government, common good, popular sovereignty, majority rule and minority rights.
    • 7.1.2.3.1 Identify examples of how principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence and Preamble to the Constitution have been applied throughout United States history, including how they have evolved (if applicable) over time.
      • For example: Equality, liberty, First Amendment rights, criminal rights, civil rights.
  • Understand that individuals in a republic have rights, duties and responsibilities.
    • 7.1.3.4.1 Explain landmark Supreme Court decisions involving the Bill of Rights and other individual protections; explain how these decisions helped define the scope and limits of personal, political and economic rights.
      • For example: Brown v. Board of Education, Tinker v. Des Moines, Mapp v. Ohio, Miranda v. Arizona.
  • Understand that citizenship and its rights and duties are established by law.
    • 7.1.3.5.1 Describe the components of responsible citizenship including informed voting and decision making, developing and defending positions on public policy issues, and monitoring and influencing public decision making.
    • 7.1.3.5.2 Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of citizens, non-citizens and dual citizens.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • Describe historical applications of the principle of checks and balances within the United States government.
      • For example: Johnson’s impeachment, Roosevelt’s court-packing plan, War Powers Resolution.
  • Understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
    • 7.1.4.7.1 Analyze how the Constitution and the Bill of Rights limits the government and the governed, protects individual rights, supports the principle of majority rule while protecting the rights of the minority, and promotes the general welfare.
      • For example: Miranda v. Arizona, Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    • 7.1.4.7.2 Describe the amendment process and the impact of key constitutional amendments.
  • Understand that free and fair elections are key elements of the United States political system.
    • 7.1.4.9.1 Analyze how changes in election processes over time contributed to freer and fairer elections.
      • For example: Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and Nineteenth Amendments; Voting Rights Act of 1965; redistricting.

Grade 8

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 8.1.1.1.1 Exhibit civic skills, including participating in civic discussion on issues in the contemporary world, demonstrating respect for the opinions of people or groups who have different perspectives, and reaching consensus.
      • For example: Civic discourse skills—speaking, listening, respecting diverse viewpoints, evaluating arguments. Issues in the contemporary world might include participation in international treaty organizations, positive discrimination/affirmative action, environmental issues.

Grades 9-12

  • Understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
    • 9.1.1.1.1 Demonstrate skills that enable people to monitor and influence state, local and national affairs.
    • 9.1.1.1.2 Demonstrate the skills necessary to participate in the election process, including registering to vote, identifying and evaluating candidates and issues, and casting a ballot.
    • 9.1.1.1.3 Evaluate sources of information and various forms of political persuasion for validity, accuracy, ideology, emotional appeals, bias and prejudice.
    • 9.1.1.1.4 Examine a public policy issue by defining the problem, developing alternative courses of action, evaluating the consequences of each alternative, selecting a course of action, and designing a plan to implement the action and resolve the problem.
    • 9.1.2.3.1 Analyze how constitutionalism preserves fundamental societal values, protects individual freedoms and rights, promotes the general welfare, and responds to changing circumstances and beliefs by defining and limiting the powers of government.
    • 9.1.2.3.2 Identify the sources of governmental authority; explain popular sovereignty (consent of the governed) as the source of legitimate governmental authority in a representative democracy or republic.
    • 9.1.2.3.3 Define and provide examples of foundational ideas of American government which are embedded in founding era documents: natural rights philosophy, social contract, civic virtue, popular sovereignty, constitutionalism, representative democracy, political factions, federalism and individual rights.
      • For example: Documents—Mayflower Compact, English Bill of Rights, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the Constitution, selected Federalist Papers (such as 10, 39, 51, 78), the Bill of Rights.
    • 9.1.2.3.4 Analyze how the following tools of civic engagement are used to influence the American political system: civil disobedience, initiative, referendum and recall.
    • 9.1.2.3.5 Analyze the tensions between the government’s dual role of protecting individual rights and promoting the general welfare, the struggle between majority rule and minority rights, and the conflict between diversity and unity.
  • Understand that individuals in a republic have rights, duties and responsibilities.
    • 9.1.3.4.1 Analyze the meaning and importance of rights in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights and subsequent amendments; compare and contrast these with rights in the Minnesota Constitution.
    • 9.1.3.4.2 Explain the scope and limits of rights protected by the First and Second Amendments and changes created by legislative action and court interpretation.
    • 9.1.3.4.3 Explain the scope and limits of rights of the accused under the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments and changes created by legislative action and court interpretation.
    • 9.1.3.4.4 Explain the current and historical interpretations of the principles of due process and equal protection of the law; analyze the protections provided by the 14th Amendment.
    • 9.1.3.4.5 Explain the responsibilities and duties for all individuals (citizens and non-citizens) in a republic.
    • 9.1.3.5.1 Define the legal meaning of citizenship in the United States, describe the process and requirements for citizenship, and explain the duties of citizenship including service in court proceedings (jury duty) and selective service registration (males).
    • 9.1.3.5.2 Describe the process of naturalization; explain the role of the federal government in establishing immigration policies.
  • Understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
    • 9.1.4.6.1 Explain federalism and the provisions of the United States Constitution which delegate to the federal government the powers necessary to fulfill the purposes for which it was established; distinguish between those powers and the powers retained by the people and the states.
      • For example: Necessary and Proper Clause (“elastic clause”), Commerce Clause, Ninth and 10th Amendments.
    • 9.1.4.6.2 Explain the purposes, organization, functions and processes of the legislative branch as enumerated in Article I of the United States Constitution.
    • 9.1.4.6.3 Explain the purposes, organization, functions and processes of the executive branch as enumerated in Article II of the United States Constitution.
    • 9.1.4.6.4 Explain the purposes, organization, functions and processes of the judicial branch as enumerated in Article III of the United States Constitution.
    • 9.1.4.6.5 Describe the systems of enumerated and implied powers, separation of powers, and checks and balances.
    • 9.1.4.6.6 Evaluate the importance of an independent judiciary, judicial review and the rule of law.
    • 9.1.4.6.7 Explain the powers and operations of the state of Minnesota government as defined in its Constitution and its relationship with the federal government.
    • 9.1.4.6.8 Explain the powers and operations of local (county, city, school board, and township) government in Minnesota.
    • 9.1.4.6.9 Compare and contrast the budgets of the United States and Minnesota governments describing the major sources of revenue and categories of spending for each.
  • Understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
    • 9.1.4.7.1 Describe the purposes, types, and sources of laws and rules.
  • Understand that public policy is shaped by governmental and non-governmental institutions and political processes.
    • 9.1.4.8.1 Evaluate the impact of political parties on elections and public policy formation.
    • 9.1.4.8.2 Evaluate the role of interest groups, corporations, think tanks, the media and public opinion on the political process and public policy formation.
  • Understand that free and fair elections are key elements of the United States political system.
    • 9.1.4.9.1 Analyze how the United States political system is shaped by elections and the election process, including the caucus system and procedures involved in voting.
  • Understand that the divergence of colonial interests from those of England led to an independence movement that resulted in the American Revolution and the foundation of a new nation based on the ideals of self-government and liberty. (Revolution and a New Nation, 1754— 1800)
    • 9.4.4.17.1 Describe the political and military events that caused some North American colonies to break with Great Britain, wage war and proclaim a new nation in 1776. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754—1800)
    • 9.4.4.17.2 Analyze the American revolutionaries’ justifications, principles and ideals as expressed in the Declaration of Independence; identify the sources of these principles and ideals and their impact on subsequent revolutions in Europe, the Caribbean, and Latin America. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754—1800)
    • 9.4.4.17.4 Analyze the arguments about the organization and powers of the federal government between 1783 and 1800, including the debates over the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights; explain the origins of the two-party political system and the significance of the election of 1800. (Revolution and a New Nation: 1754— 1800)
      • For example: Ratification debates— Federalists/Anti-Federalists, full funding and assumption, Neutrality Proclamation and the Election of 1800.
  • Understand regional tensions around economic development, slavery, territorial expansion and governance resulted in a civil war and a period of Reconstruction that led to the abolition of slavery, a more powerful federal government, a renewed push into indigenous nations’ territory and continuing conflict over racial relations. (Civil War and Reconstruction: 1850—1877)
    • 9.4.4.19.7 Describe the content, context, and consequences of the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments; evaluate the successes and failures of the Reconstruction, including the election of 1876, in relation to freedom and equality across the nation. (Civil War and Reconstruction: 1850—1877)