New Mexico

New Mexico High School Graduation Requirements:

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 22-13-1.1-I: High school graduation requirements include “three and one-half units in social science, which shall include United States history and geography, world history and geography and government and economics, and one-half unit of New Mexico history.”

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 22-13-1.1-L: “Beginning with the 2010-2011 school year, a student shall not receive a New Mexico diploma of excellence if the student has not demonstrated competence in the subject areas of mathematics, reading and language arts, writing, social studies and science, including a section on the constitution of the United States and the constitution of New Mexico, based on a standards-based assessment or assessments or a portfolio of standards-based indicators established by the department by rule.”

New Mexico Social Studies Standards

“Strand: Civics and Government, Content Standard III: Students understand the ideals, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship and understand the content and history of the founding documents of the United States with particular emphasis on the United States and New Mexico constitutions and how governments function at local, state, tribal, and national levels.”

Kindergarten

  • K-4 Benchmark III-A: Know the fundamental purposes, concepts, structures, and functions of local, state, tribal, and national governments.
    • Identify authority figures and describe their roles (e.g., parents, teachers, principal, superintendent, police, public officials).
  • K-4 Benchmark III-B: Identify and describe the symbols, icons, songs, traditions, and leaders of local, state, tribal, and national levels that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
    • Recognize and name symbols and activities of the United States, New Mexico, and tribes, to include:
      • United States symbols to include the flag, bald eagle, monuments.
      • New Mexico symbols to include the flag, Smokey Bear, State Bird, chili.
      • Tribal symbols and activities to include Feast Days, pottery, arts, storytelling.
        Recognize patriotic activities including The Pledge of Allegiance, The Star Spangled Banner, salute to the New Mexico flag, and New Mexico state songs.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-C: Become familiar with the basic purposes of government in New Mexico and the United States.
    • Describe and provide examples of fairness.
  • K-4 Benchmark III- D: Understand rights and responsibilities of “good citizenship” as members of a family, school and community.
    • Describe what is meant by citizenship.
    • Explain what is meant by “good citizenship,” to include:
      • taking turns and sharing.
      • taking responsibility for own actions, assignments, and personal belongings within the classroom and respecting the property of others.

Grade 1

  • K-4 Benchmark III-A: Know the fundamental purposes, concepts, structures, and functions of local, state, tribal, and national governments.
    • Understand the purpose of rules and identify examples of rules and the consequences of breaking them. 2. Describe different groups and rules that apply to them (e.g., families, classrooms, communities).
  • K-4 Benchmark III-B: Identify and describe the symbols, icons, songs, traditions, and leaders of local, state, tribal, and national levels that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
    • Identify the President of the United States and the Governor of New Mexico.
    • Describe how local, state, tribal and national leaders exemplify the ideals of the communities they represent.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-C: Become familiar with the basic purposes of government in New Mexico and the United States.
    • Describe different ways to determine a decision (e.g., majority rule, consensus, authoritarian [parent, teacher, principal]).
  • K-4 Benchmark III- D: Understand rights and responsibilities of “good citizenship” as members of a family, school and community.
    • Identify examples of honesty, courage, fairness, loyalty, patriotism, and other character traits seen in American history.
    • Explain and apply “good citizenship” traits within the school and community using the elements of fair play, good sportsmanship, the idea of treating others the way you want to be treated, and being trustworthy.

Grade 2

  • K-4 Benchmark III-A: Know the fundamental purposes, concepts, structures, and functions of local, state, tribal, and national governments.
    • Understand the purpose of government.
    • Describe and compare class rules made by direct democracy (entire class votes on the rules) and by representative democracy (class elects a smaller group to make the rules).
  • K-4 Benchmark III-B: Identify and describe the symbols, icons, songs, traditions, and leaders of local, state, tribal, and national levels that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
    • Identify local governing officials and explain how their roles reflect their community.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-C: Become familiar with the basic purposes of government in New Mexico and the United States.
    • Describe the concept of “public good” and identify local examples of systems that support the “public good.”
  • K-4 Benchmark III- D: Understand rights and responsibilities of “good citizenship” as members of a family, school and community.
    • Understand characteristics of “good citizenship” as exemplified by historic and ordinary people.
    • Explain the responsibilities of being a member of various groups (e.g. family, school, community).

Grade 3

  • K-4 Benchmark III-A: Know the fundamental purposes, concepts, structures, and functions of local, state, tribal, and national governments.
    • Explain the basic structure and functions of local governments.
    • Describe and give examples of “public good.”
    • Explain how New Mexico helps to form a nation with other states.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-B: Identify and describe the symbols, icons, songs, traditions, and leaders of local, state, tribal, and national levels that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
    • Explain how symbols, songs, icons, and traditions combine to reflect various cultures over time.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-C: Become familiar with the basic purposes of government in New Mexico and the United States.
    • Describe how the majority protects the rights of the minority.
    • Explain how rules/laws are made and compare different processes used by local, state, tribal, and national governments to determine rules/laws.
  • K-4 Benchmark III- D: Understand rights and responsibilities of “good citizenship” as members of a family, school and community.
    • Explain the significance of participation and cooperation in a classroom and community.
    • Understand the impact of individual and group decisions on communities in a democratic society.
    • Explain the significance and process of voting.

Grade 4

  • K-4 Benchmark III-A: Know the fundamental purposes, concepts, structures, and functions of local, state, tribal, and national governments.
    • Compare how the State of New Mexico serves national interests and the interests of New Mexicans.
    • Explain the difference between making laws, carrying out the laws, and determining if the laws have been broken, and identify the government bodies.
    • Identify local governing officials and explain how their roles reflect their community. Explain how symbols, songs, icons, and traditions combine to reflect various cultures over time.
    • Describe various cultures and the communities they represent, and explain how they have evolved over time.
    • Explain how the organization of New Mexico’s government changed during its early history that perform these functions at the local, state, tribal, and national levels.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-B: Identify and describe the symbols, icons, songs, traditions, and leaders of local, state, tribal, and national levels that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
    • Describe various cultures and the communities they represent, and explain how they have evolved over time.
  • K-4 Benchmark III-C: Become familiar with the basic purposes of government in New Mexico and the United States.
    • Compare and contrast how the various governments have applied rules/laws, majority rule, “public good,” and protections of the minority in different periods of New Mexico’s history.
  • K-4 Benchmark III- D: Understand rights and responsibilities of “good citizenship” as members of a family, school and community.
    • Explain the difference between rights and responsibilities, why we have rules and laws, and the role of citizenship in promoting them.
    • Examine issues of human rights.

Grade 5

  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-A: Demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):
    • Explain how the three branches of national government function and explain how they are defined in the United States constitution;
    • Identify the fundamental ideals and principles of our republican form of government (e.g., inalienable rights such as “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” the rule of law, justice, equality under the law);
    • Identify and describe the significance of American symbols, landmarks and essential documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence; United States Constitution; Bill of Rights; the Federalist Papers; Washington, D.C.; Liberty Bell; Gettysburg Address; Statue of liberty; government to government accords; Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; Gadsden purchase); and
    • Compare and contrast the basic government sovereignty of local, state, tribal and national governments.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-B: Explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:
    • Explain the significance and importance of American customs, symbols, landmarks and celebrations;
    • Identify and summarize contributions of various racial, ethnic and religious groups to national identity; and
    • Describe selected ethnic and religious customs and celebrations that enhance local, state, tribal and national identities.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-C: Compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American Revolution and the United States government:
    • Describe the narrative of the people and events associated with the development of the United States Constitution, and describe its significance to the foundation of the American republic, to include:
    • Colonists’ and Native Americans’ shared sense of individualism, independence and religious freedom that developed before the revolution;
    • Articles of Confederation;
    • Purpose of the Constitutional Convention; and
    • Natural rights expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
    • Describe the contributions and roles of major individuals, including George Washington, James Madison and Benjamin Franklin.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-D: Explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:
    • Explain the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law and to preserve the constitutions of local, state, tribal and federal governments.

Grade 6

  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-A: Demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):
    • Describe the concept of democracy as developed by the Greeks and compare the evolution of democracies throughout the world; and
    • Describe the concept of republic as developed by the Romans and compare to other republican governments.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-B: Explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:
    • Describe the significance of leadership in democratic societies and provide examples of local, national and international leadership, to include: qualities of leadership; names and contributions of New Mexico leaders; names and contributions of national leaders.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-C: Compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American Revolution and the United States government:
    • Explain how Greek and Roman societies expanded and advanced the role of citizen; and
    • Identify historical origins of democratic forms of government (e.g., early civilizations, Native American governments).
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-D: Explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:
    • Understand that the nature of citizenship varies among societies.

Grade 7

  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-A: Demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):
    • Explain the structure and functions of New Mexico’s state government as expressed in the New Mexico Constitution, to include:
      • Roles and methods of initiative, referendum and recall processes;
      • Function of multiple executive offices;
      • Election process (e.g., primaries and general elections); and
      • Criminal justice system (e.g., juvenile justice).
  • Explain the roles and relationships of different levels of the legislative process, to include:
      • Structure of New Mexico legislative districts (e.g., number of districts, students’ legislative districts, representatives and senators of the students’ districts); and
      • The structure of the New Mexico legislature and leaders of the legislature during the current session (e.g., bicameral, House of Representatives and Senate, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Senate Pro Tem).
  • Compare the structure and functions of the New Mexico legislature with that of the state’s tribal governments (e.g., pueblo Indian council; Navajo, Apache and Hopi nations).
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-B: Explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:
    • Explain the concept of diversity and its significance within the political and social unity of New Mexico;
    • Describe ways in which different groups maintain their cultural heritage;
    • Explain how New Mexico’s state legislature and other state legislatures identify symbols representative of a state; and
    • Identify official and unofficial public symbols of various cultures and describe how they are or are not exemplary of enduring elements of those cultures.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-C: Compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American Revolution and the United States government:
    • Compare and contrast New Mexico’s entry into the United States with that of the original thirteen colonies; and
    • Understand the structure and function of New Mexico government as created by the New Mexico constitution and how it supports local, tribal and federal governments.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-D: Explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:
    • Explain the obligations and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., the obligations of upholding the constitution, obeying the law, paying taxes, jury duty); and
    • Explain the roles of citizens in political decision-making (e.g., voting, petitioning public officials, analyzing issues).

Grade 8

  • 5-8 Benchmark 1-B. United States: Analyze and interpret major eras, events and individuals from the periods of exploration and colonization through the civil war and reconstruction in United States history:
    • Describe, evaluate and interpret the economic and political reasons for the American revolution, to include:
      • Attempts to regulate colonial trade through passage of Tea Act, Stamp Act and Intolerable Acts; colonists’ reaction to British policy (e.g., boycotts, the sons of liberty, petitions, appeals to Parliament); and
      • The ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence, including the Preamble.
    • Describe the aspirations, ideals and events that served as the foundation for the creation of a new national government, to include:
      • Articles of Confederation, the Constitution and the success of each in implementing the ideals of the Declaration of Independence;
      • Major debates of the Constitutional Convention and their resolution (e.g., the Federalist Papers), contributions and roles of major individuals in the writing and ratification of the Constitution (e.g., George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Jay); and
      • Struggles over ratification of the Constitution and the creation of the Bill of Rights.
    • Describe and explain the actions taken to build one nation from thirteen states, to include:
      • Precedents established by George Washington (e.g., cabinet, two-term presidency);
      • Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan (e.g., the national bank, payment of debts); and
      • Creation of political parties (democratic republicans and the federalists).
    • Describe the successes and failures of the reforms during the age of Jackson, to include:
      • Extension of franchise to all white men;
      • Indian removal, the Trail of Tears, the Long Walk; and
      • Abolition movement (e.g., Quakers, Harriet Tubman, Underground Railroad).
    • Describe, explain and analyze the aims and impact of western expansion and the settlement of the United States, to include:
      • American belief in Manifest Destiny and how it led to the Mexican War and its consequences;
      • Comparison of African American and Native American slavery; westward migration of peoples (e.g., Oregon, California, Mormons and  southwest); and
      • Origins and early history of the women’s movement.
    • Explain how sectionalism led to the Civil War, to include:
      • Different economies that developed in the north, south and west; addition of new states to the union and the balance of power in the United States Senate (Missouri and 1850 compromises);
      • Extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott decision, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Frederick Douglass, John Brown); and
      • Presidential election of 1860, Lincoln’s victory and the South’s secession.
    • Explain the course and consequences of the Civil War and how it divided people in the United States, to include:
      • Contributions and significance of key figures (e.g., Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, William Tecumseh Sherman, Ulysses S. Grant);
      • Major turning points in the Civil War, including Gettysburg; unique nature of the Civil War (e.g., impact of Americans fighting Americans, high casualties caused by disease and type of warfare, widespread destruction of American property); and
      • Role of African Americans; purpose and effect of the Emancipation Proclamation; and
    • Analyze the character and lasting consequences of reconstruction, to  include:
      • Reconstruction plans; impact of Lincoln’s assassination and the impeachment of Andrew Johnson;
      • Attempts to protect the rights and enhance the opportunities for freedmen by the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the United States Constitution; and
      • Post-Civil War segregation policies and their resulting impact on racial issues in the United States.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-A: Demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):
    • Explain the structure and functions of the national government as expressed in the United States Constitution, and explain the powers granted to the three branches of government and those reserved to the people, states and tribes, to include:
      • The federal system (dividing sovereignty between the states and the federal government and their supporting bureaucracies);
      • The sovereignty of Native American tribes in relation to state and federal governments (and government to government relationships); Bill of Rights, amendments to Constitution;
      • The primacy of individual liberty;
      • Constitution designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government;
      • Struggles over the creation of the Bill of Rights and its ratification;
      • Separation of powers through the development of differing branches; and
      • John Marshall’s role in judicial review, including Marbury v. Madison.
    • Identify and describe a citizen’s fundamental constitutional rights, to  include:
      • Freedom of religion, expression, assembly and press;
      • Right to a fair trial; and
      • Equal protection and due process.
    • Describe the contributions of Native Americans in providing a model that was utilized in forming the United States government (Iroquois League); and
    • Explain and describe how water rights and energy issues cross state and national boundaries.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-B: Explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:
    • Explain how the development of symbols, songs, traditions and concepts of leadership reflect American beliefs and principles; and
    • Explain the importance of point of view and its relationship to freedom of speech and press.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-C: Compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American Revolution and the United States government:
    • Describe political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American Revolution and the United States government, to include:
      • Ideas of the nature of government and rights of the individuals expressed in the Declaration of Independence with its roots in English philosophers (e.g., John Locke);
      • Concept of limited government and the rule of law established in the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights;
      • Social covenant established in the Mayflower Compact;
      • Characteristics of representative governments;
      • Anti-Federalist and Federalist arguments towards the new constitution, including those expressed in the Federalist Papers; and
      • Concepts of federalism, democracy, bicameralism, separation of powers, and checks and balances.
    • Explain the concept and practice of separation of powers among the U.S. Congress, the President and the Supreme Court; and
    • Understand the fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy, including how the government derives its power from the people.
  • 5-8 Benchmark 3-D: Explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:
    • Explain basic law-making processes and how the design of the United States Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., elections, political parties, interest groups); and
    • Understand the multiplicity and complexity of human rights issues.

Grades 9-12

  • 9-12 Benchmark 1-B. United States: Analyze and evaluate the impact of major eras, events and individuals in United States history since the Civil War and Reconstruction:
    • Analyze the development of voting and civil rights for all groups in the United States following Reconstruction, to include:
      • Intent and impact of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the constitution;
      • Segregation as enforced by Jim Crow laws following reconstruction;
      • Key court cases (e.g., Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Roe v.
        Wade);
      • Roles and methods of civil rights advocates (e.g., Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Rosa Parks, Russell Means, César Chávez);
      • The passage and effect of the voting rights legislation on minorities (e.g., 19th Amendment, role of Arizona Supreme Court decision on Native Americans, role of the United States in supporting democracy in eastern Europe following the collapse of the Berlin wall; new allegiances in defining the new world order; their disenfranchisement under Arizona Constitution and subsequent changes made in other state constitutions regarding Native American voting rights – such as New Mexico, 1962, 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Act of 1965, 24th Amendment);
      • Impact and reaction to the efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment; and
      • Rise of black power, brown power, American Indian movement, united farm workers.
  • 9-12 Benchmark 3-A: Compare and analyze the structure, power and purpose of government at the local, state, tribal and national levels as set forth in their respective constitutions or governance documents:
    • Analyze the structure, powers and role of the legislative branch of the United States government, to include: specific powers delegated in Article I of the Constitution; checks and balances described in the Federalist Papers, Number 51; lawmaking process; role of leadership within congress; Federalist and Anti- Federalist positions;
    • Analyze the structure, powers and role of the executive branch of the United States government, to include: specific powers delegated in Article II of the Constitution; checks and balances; development of the cabinet and federal bureaucracy; roles and duties of the presidency, including those acquired over time such as “head of state” and “head of a political party;”
    • Examine the election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions and Electoral College;
    • Analyze the structure, powers and role of the judicial branch of the United States government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions, to include: specific powers delegated by the Constitution in Article III and described in the Federalist Papers, Numbers 78- 83; checks and balances; judicial review as developed in Marbury v. Madison; issues raised in McCulloch v. Maryland; dual court system of state and federal governments, including their organization and jurisdiction;
    • Analyze the rights, protections, limits and freedoms included within the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights, to include: constitutional mandates such as the right of habeas corpus, no bill of attainder and the prohibition of the ex post facto laws; 1st Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition; 4th, 5th and 6th Amendments address search and seizure, rights of the accused, right to a fair and speedy trial, and other legal protections; 14th Amendment protection of due process and equal protection under the law; conflicts which occur between rights, including tensions between the right to a fair trial and freedom of the press and between majority rule and individual rights; expansion of voting rights, limitation of presidential terms, etc.;
    • Compare and contrast the structure and powers of New Mexico’s government as expressed in the New Mexico Constitution with that of the United States Constitution, to include: direct democracy in the initiative, referendum and recall process; impeachment process; process of voter registration and voting; role of primary elections to nominate candidates; how a bill becomes a law; executive officers and their respective powers; New Mexico courts, appointment of judges, and election and retainment processes for judges; organization of county and municipal governments; and
    • Describe and analyze the powers and responsibilities (including the concept of legitimate power) of local, state, tribal and national governments.
  • 9-12 Benchmark 3-B: Analyze how the symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:
    • Analyze the qualities of effective leadership;
    • Evaluate the impact of United States political, tribal and social leaders on New Mexico and the nation;
    • Analyze the contributions of symbols, songs and traditions toward promoting a sense of unity at the state and national levels; and
    • Evaluate the role of New Mexico and United States symbols, icons, songs and traditions in providing continuity over time.
  • 9-12 Benchmark 3-C: compare and contrast the philosophical foundations of the United States’ political system in terms of the purpose of government, including its historical sources and ideals, with those of other governments in the world:
    • Analyze the structure, function and powers of the federal government (e.g., legislative, executive, and judicial branches);
    • Analyze and explain the philosophical foundations of the American political system in terms of the inalienable rights of people and the purpose of government, to include: Iroquois League and its organizational structure for effective governance; basic philosophical principles of John Locke expressed in the Second Treatise of Government (nature, equality, and dissolution of government); foundation principles of laws by William Blackstone (laws in general and absolute rights of individuals); importance of the founders of the rights of Englishmen, the Magna Carta and representative government in England;
    • Analyze the fundamental principles in the Declaration of Independence;
    • Analyze the historical sources and ideals of the structure of the United States government, to include: principles of democracy; essential principles of a republican form of government; code of law put forth in the Code of Hammurabi; separation of powers as expressed by the Baron of Montesquieu; checks and balances as expressed by Thomas Hobbs; ideas of individual rights developed in the English Bill of Rights; role of philosophers in supporting changes in governments in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire);
    • Compare and contrast the concepts of courts and justice from Henry II of England to the court system of today;
    • Compare and contrast the unitary, confederal and federal systems;
    • Analyze the ways powers are distributed and shared in a parliamentary system;
    • Compare and contrast the different philosophies, structures and institutions of democratic versus totalitarian systems of government;
    • Analyze and evaluate the concept of limited government and the rule of law;
    • Compare and contrast the characteristics of representative governments;
    • Compare and contrast characteristics of Native American governments with early United States governments;
    • Compare and contrast the philosophical foundations of forms of governments to understand the purpose of the corresponding political system (e.g., socialism, capitalism, secular, theocratic, totalitarian); and
    • Analyze the role that the United States has played as a constitutional republican government for nations around the world.
  • 9-12 Benchmark 3-D: Understand how to exercise rights and responsibilities as citizens by participating in civic life and using skills that include interacting, monitoring and influencing.
    • Describe and analyze the influence of the non-elected (e.g., staff, lobbyists, interest groups);
    • Analyze the rights and obligations of citizens in the United States, to include: connections between self-interest, the common good and the essential element of civic virtue, as described in the Federalist Papers, Numbers 5 and 49; obeying the law, serving on juries, paying taxes, voting, registering for selective service and military service;
    • Demonstrate the skills needed to participate in government at all levels, including: analyze public issues and the political system; evaluate candidates and their positions; debate current issues;
    • Analyze factors that influence the formation of public opinion (e.g., media, print, advertising, news broadcasts, magazines, radio); and
    • Evaluate standards, conflicts and issues related to universal human rights and their impact on public policy.