New York

New York Regulations, Definitions:

8 NYCRR § 100.1 t.1.iii.e. “Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the United States and other nations; the United States Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy; and the roles, rights and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation.”

New York Regulations, Diploma Requirements:

8 NYCRR §100.5 a.3.ii. “social studies, four units of credit…”
Four units of credit in social studies, to include one unit of credit in American history and one half unit of credit in participation in government and one half unit of credit in economics or their equivalent. To qualify for a Regents or a local diploma, students must pass the Regents exam in United States History and Government.

8 NYCRR §100.5 a.5.i.c.3. “For students who first enter grade nine in September 2011 and thereafter or who are otherwise eligible to receive a high school diploma pursuant to this section in June 2015 and thereafter, by passing one of the following assessments: (i) the Regents examination in United States history and government…”

New York Social Studies Standards

Grade K

  • K.3 Symbols and traditions help develop a shared culture and identity within the United States.
    • K.3b The study of American symbols, holidays, and celebrations helps to develop a shared sense of history, community, and culture.
      • Students will explain when and why national holidays such as Labor Day, Constitution Day, Columbus Day, Thanksgiving, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Law Day, and Independence Day are celebrated.
      • Students will identify American symbols, such as the Liberty Bell and the bald eagle.
      • Students will learn the Pledge of Allegiance.
      • Students will learn the parts of the American flag (stars and stripes) and how to show respect toward the flag.
      • Students will learn patriotic songs, including the national anthem, “America the Beautiful,” and “America.”
  • K.4 Children and adults have rights and responsibilities at home, at school, in the classroom, and in the community.
    • K.4a Children have basic universal rights or protections as members of a family, school, community, nation, and the world.

Grade 1

  • 1.2 There are significant individuals, historical events, and symbols that are important to American cultural identify.
    • 1.2a The study of historical events, historical figures, and folklore enables Americans with diverse cultural backgrounds to feel connected to a common national heritage.
      • Students will explain when and why celebrate national holidays such as Labor Day, Constitution Day, Columbus Day, Thanksgiving, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Law Day, and Independence Day are celebrated.
    • 1.2b The Pledge of Allegiance and patriotic songs play an important role in understanding and examining the nation’s history, values and beliefs.
      • Students will be able to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, to begin to understand its purpose and its general meaning, and to sing patriotic songs such as America the Beautiful, America (“My Country ‘Tis of Thee”), and The Star Spangled Banner and begin to understand the general meaning of the lyrics.
  • 1.4 People create governments in order to create peace and establish order. Laws are created to protect the rights and define the responsibilities of individuals and groups.
    • 1.4a Rules and laws are developed to protect people’s rights and for the safety and welfare of the community.
    • 1.4b Governments exist at the local, state, and national levels to represent the needs of the people, create and enforce laws, and help resolve conflicts.

Grade 2

  • 2.3 The United States is founded on the principles of democracy, and these principles are reflected in all types of communities.
    • 2.3a The United States is founded on the democratic principles of equality, fairness, and respect for authority and rules.
    • 2.3b Government is established to maintain order and keep people safe. Citizens demonstrate respect for authority by obeying rules and laws.
    • 2.3c The process of holding elections and voting is an example of democracy in action in schools, communities, New York State, and the nation.
    • 2.3d Symbols of American democracy serve to unite community members.

Grade 3

  • 3.7 Governments in communities and countries around the world have the authority to make and the power to enforce laws. The role of the citizen within these communities or countries varies across different types of governments.
    • 3.7a The United States government is based on democratic principles. The fundamental principles of other governments may be similar to or different from those of the United States government.

Grade 4

  • 4.4 GOVERNMENT: There are different levels of government within the United States and New York State. The purpose of government is to protect the rights of citizens and to promote the common good. The government of New York State establishes rights, freedoms, and responsibilities for its citizens.
    • 4.4a After the Revolution, the United States of America established a federal government; colonies established state governments.
      • Students will examine the basic structure of the federal government, including the president, Congress, and the courts.
        Students will explore ways that the federal, state, and local governments meet the needs of citizens, looking for similarities and differences between the different levels of government.
    • 4.4d New Yorkers have rights and freedoms that are guaranteed in the United States Constitution, in the New York State Constitution, and by state laws.
      • Students will examine the rights and freedoms guaranteed to citizens.

Grade 5

  • 5.6 GOVERNMENT: The political systems of the Western Hemisphere vary in structure and organization across time and place.
    • 5.6a Government structures, functions, and founding documents vary from place to place in the countries of the Western Hemisphere.
      • Students will examine the basic structure of the United States federal government, including the president, Congress and the courts.
        Students will examine the foundational documents of the United States government for evidence of the country’s beliefs, values, and principles.
    • 5.6b Legal, political, and historic documents define the values, beliefs, and principles of constitutional democracy.
      • Students will examine the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights, the British North America Act, and the Canadian Bill of Rights in terms of key values, beliefs, and principles of constitutional democracy.

Grade 7

  • 7.2 COLONIAL DEVELOPMENTS: European exploration of the New World resulted in various interactions with Native Americans and in colonization. The American colonies were established for a variety of reasons and developed differently based on economic, social, and geographic factors. Colonial America had a variety of social structures under which not all people were treated equally.
    • 7.2c. European nations established colonies in North America for economic, religious, and political reasons. Differences in climate, physical features, access to water, and sources of labor contributed to the development of different economies in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.
    • 7.2e Over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, slavery grew in the colonies. Enslaved Africans utilized a variety of strategies to both survive and resist their conditions.
  • 7.3 AMERICA INDEPENDENCE: Growing tensions over political power and economic issues sparked a movement for independence from Great Britain. New York played a critical role in the course and outcome of the American Revolution.
    • 7.3a Conflicts between France and Great Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries in North America altered the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain.
    • 7.3b Stemming from the French and Indian War, the British government enacted and attempted to enforce new political and economic policies in the colonies. These policies triggered varied colonial responses, including protests and dissent.
      • Students will examine actions taken by the British, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Quartering Act, the Stamp Act, the Tea Act, and the Coercive Acts, and colonial responses to those actions.
      • Students will compare British and colonial patriot portrayals of the Boston Massacre, using historical evidence.
    • 7.3c Influenced by Enlightenment ideas and their rights as Englishmen, American colonial leaders outlined their grievances against British policies and actions in the Declaration of Independence.
      • Students will examine the influence Enlightenment ideas such as natural rights and social contract and ideas expressed in Thomas Paine’s Common Sense had on colonial leaders in their debates on independence.
      • Students will examine the Declaration of Independence and the arguments for independence stated within it.
  • 7.4 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION: The newly independent states faced political and economic struggles under the Articles of Confederation. These challenges resulted in a Constitutional Convention, a debate over ratification, and the eventual adoption of the Bill of Rights.
    • 7.4a Throughout the American Revolution, the colonies struggled to address their differing social, political, and economic interests and to establish unity. The Articles of Confederation created a form of government that loosely united the states, but allowed states to maintain a large degree of sovereignty.
    • 7.4b The lack of a strong central government under the Articles of Confederation presented numerous challenges. A convention was held to revise the Articles, the result of which was the Constitution. The Constitution established a democratic republic with a stronger central government.
      • Students will investigate the successes and failures of the Articles of Confederation, determine why many felt a new plan of government was needed, and explain how the United States Constitution attempted to address the weaknesses of the Articles.
    • 7.4c Advocates for and against a strong central government were divided on issues of States rights, role/limits of federal power, and guarantees of individual freedoms. Compromises were needed between the states in order to ratify the Constitution.
      • Students will examine from multiple perspectives arguments regarding the balance of power between the federal and state governments, the power of government, and the rights of individuals. Students will examine how key issues were resolved during the Constitutional Convention, including:
        • state representation in Congress (Great Compromise or bicameral legislature)
        • the balance of power between the federal and state governments (establishment of the system of federalism)
        • the prevention of parts of government becoming too powerful (the establishment of the three branches)
        • the counting of the enslaved African American community for purposes of congressional representation and taxation (the Three-Fifths Compromise)
      • Students will examine the role of New York State residents Alexander Hamilton and John Jay as  leading advocates for the new Constitution.
  • 7.5 THE CONSTITUTION IN PRACTICE: The United States Constitution serves as the foundation of the United States government and outlines the rights of citizens. The Constitution is considered a living document that can respond to political and social changes. The New York State Constitution also has been changed over time.
    • 7.5a The Constitution outlined a federalist system of government that shares powers between the federal, state, and local governments.
      • Students will identify powers granted to the federal government and examine the language used to grant powers to the states.
    • 7.5b The Constitution established three branches of government as well as a system of checks of balances that guides the relationship between the branches. Individual rights of citizens are addressed in the Bill of Rights.
      • Students will compare and contrast the powers granted to Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court by the Constitution.
      • Students will examine how checks and balances work by tracing how a bill becomes a law.
      • Students will identify the individual rights of citizens that are protected by the Bill of Rights.
  • 7.5c While the Constitution provides a formal process for change through amendments, the Constitution can respond to change in other ways. The New York State Constitution changed over time, with changes in the early 19th century that made it more democratic.
      • Students will examine the process for amending the constitution.
        Students will examine the evolution of the unwritten constitution, such as Washington’s creation of the presidential cabinet and the development of political parties.
  • 7.5d Foreign and domestic disputes tested the strength of the Constitution, particularly the separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, and the issue of States rights. The United States sought to implement isolationism while protecting the Western Hemisphere from European interference.
      • Students will examine events of the early nation including Hamilton’s economic plan, the Louisiana Purchase, the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison, and the War of 1812 in terms of testing the strength of the Constitution.
  • 7.7 REFORM MOVEMENTS: Social, political, and economic inequalities sparked various reform movements and resistance efforts. Influenced by the Second Great Awakening, New York State played a key role in many reform efforts.
    • 7.7b Enslaved African Americans resisted slavery in various ways in the 19th century. The abolitionist movement also worked to raise awareness of and generate resistance to the institution of slavery.
      • Students will examine ways in which enslaved Africans organized and resisted their conditions.
      • Students will explore the efforts of William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman  to abolish slavery.
      • Students will examine the effects of Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the public perception of slavery.
      • Students will investigate New York State and its role in the abolition movement, including the locations  of Underground Railroad stations.
        o 7.7c Women joined the movements for abolition and temperance and organized to advocate for women’s property rights, fair wages, education, and political equality.
      • Students will examine the efforts of women to acquire more rights. These women include Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Susan B. Anthony.
      • Students will explain the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention and the Declaration of Sentiments.
  • 7.8 A NATION DIVIDED: Westward expansion, the industrialization of the North, and the increase of slavery in the South contributed to the growth of sectionalism. Constitutional conflicts between advocates of states’ rights and supporters of federal power increased tensions in the nation; attempts to compromise ultimately failed to keep the nation together, leading to the Civil War.
    • 7.8a Early United States industrialization affected different parts of the country in different ways. Regional economic differences and values, as well as different conceptions of the Constitution, laid the basis for tensions between states’ rights advocates and supporters of a strong federal government.
    • 7.8b As the nation expanded geographically, the question of slavery in new territories and states led to increased sectional tensions. Attempts at compromise ended in failure.
      • Students will examine attempts at resolving conflicts over whether new territories would permit slavery, including the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
        Students will examine growing sectional tensions, including the decision in Dred Scott v.
        Sanford (1857) and the founding of the Republican Party.
    • 7.8d The course and outcome of the Civil War were influenced by strategic leaders from both the North and South, decisive battles, and military strategy and technology that utilized the region’s geography.
      • Students will examine the goals and content of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.
    • 7.8e The Civil War affected human lives, physical infrastructure, economic capacity, and governance of the United States.
      • Students will examine the roles of women, civilians, and free African Americans during the Civil War.
        Students will explain how events of the Civil War led to the establishment of federal supremacy.

Grade 8

  • 8.1 RECONSTRUCTIOM: Regional tensions following the Civil War complicated efforts to heal the nation and to redefine the status of African Americans.
    • 8.1b Freed African Americans created new lives for themselves in the absence of the slavery. Constitutional amendments and federal legislation sought to expand the rights and protect the citizenship of African Americans.
      • Students will examine the Reconstruction amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th) in terms of the rights and protections provided to African Americans.
    • 8.1c Federal initiatives begun during Reconstruction were challenged on many levels, leading to negative impacts on the lives of African Americans.
      • Students will explore methods used by Southern state governments to affect the lives of African Americans, including the passage of Black Codes, poll taxes, and Jim Crow laws.
        Students will explore the responses of some Southerners to the increased rights of African Americans, noting the development of organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan and White Leagues.
        Students will examine the ways in which the federal government failed to follow up on its promises to freed African Americans.
        Students will examine the effects of the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling.
  • 8.4 WORLD WAR I AND THE ROARING TWENTIES: Various diplomatic, economic, and ideological factors contributed to the United States decision to enter World War I. Involvement in the war significantly altered the lives of Americans. Postwar America was characterized by economic prosperity, technological innovations, and changes in the workplace.
    • 8.4e After World War I, the United States entered a period of economic prosperity and cultural change. This period is known as the Roaring Twenties. During this time, new opportunities for women were gained, and African Americans engaged in various efforts to distinguish themselves and celebrate their culture.
      • Students will investigate the efforts of women suffragists and explain the historical significance of the 19th amendment.
        Students will examine the reasons for and effects of prohibition on American society.
        Students will examine examples of World War I and postwar race relations, such as the East St. Louis  riots, the Silent March, and the Tulsa riots.
        Students will explore the changes in American culture after World War I, including an examination of  the Harlem Renaissance and other changes in New York City.
  • 8.9 DOMESTIC POLITICS AND REFORM: The civil rights movement and the Great Society were attempts by people and the government to address major social, legal, economic, and environmental problems. Subsequent economic recession called for a new economic program.
    • 8.9a The civil rights movement began in the postwar era in response to long-standing inequalities in American society, and eventually brought about equality under the law, but slower progress on economic improvements.
      • Students will compare and contrast the strategies used by civil rights activists, such as Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.
        Students will explain the significance of key civil rights victories, including President Truman’s desegregation of the military, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
      • Students will examine the extent to which the economic situation of African Americans improved as a result of the civil rights movement.
    • 8.9b The civil rights movement prompted renewed efforts for equality by women and other groups.
      • Students will examine struggles for equality and factors that enabled or limited success on behalf of women, farm workers, Native Americans, the disabled, and the LGBT community.
        Students will examine judicial actions taken to protect individual rights, such as Miranda v.
        Arizona (1966) and Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969).
    • 8.9c Constitutional issues involving the violation of civil liberties and the role of federal government are a source of debate in American society.
      • Students will examine state and federal responses to gun violence, cyber-bullying, and electronic surveillance.

Grade 9

  • 9.9 TRASNFORMATION OF WESTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA: Western Europe and Russia transformed politically, economically, and culturally ca. 1400-1750. This transformation included state building, conflicts, shifts in power and authority, and new ways of understanding their world.
    • 9.9a. The Renaissance was influenced by the diffusion of technology and ideas. The Islamic caliphates played an important role in this diffusion.
      • Students will explore shifts in the Western European Medieval view of itself and the world as well as key Greco-Roman legacies that influenced Renaissance thinkers and artists.
        Students will examine political ideas developed during the Renaissance, including those of Machiavelli.
    • 9.9b. The Reformation challenged traditional religious authority, which prompted a counter reformation that led to a religiously fragmented Western Europe and political conflicts. This religious upheaval continued the marginalization of Jews in European society.
      • Students will explore the roles of key individuals, including Martin Luther, John Calvin, Elizabeth I, and Ignatius Loyola, and the impacts they had on the religious and political unity of Europe.
    • 9.9e The Enlightenment challenged views of political authority and how power and authority were conceptualized.
      • Students will investigate the Enlightenment by comparing and contrasting the ideas expressed in The Leviathan and The Second Treatise on Government.
        Students will investigate the context and challenge to authority in the English Civil War and Glorious Revolution.
    • 9.10c The decimation of indigenous populations in the Americas influenced the growth of the Atlantic slave trade. The trade of enslaved peoples resulted in exploitation, death, and the creation of wealth.
      • Students will examine how the demand for labor, primarily for sugar cultivation and silver mining, influenced the growth of the trade of enslaved African peoples.
        Students will investigate European and African roles in the development of the slave trade, and investigate the conditions and treatment of enslaved Africans during the Middle Passage and in the Americas.

Grade 10

  • 10.2: ENLIGHTENMENT, REVOLUTION, AND NATIONALISM: The Enlightenment called into question traditional beliefs and inspired widespread political, economic, and social change. This intellectual movement was used to challenge political authorities in Europe and colonial rule in the Americas. These ideals inspired political and social movements.
    • 10.2a Enlightenment thinkers developed political philosophies based on natural laws, which included the concepts of social contract, consent of the governed, and the rights of citizens.
      • Students will examine at least three Enlightenment thinkers, including John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and key ideas from their written works.
    • 10.2b Individuals used Enlightenment ideals to challenge traditional beliefs and secure people’s rights in reform movements, such as women’s rights and abolition; some leaders may be considered enlightened despots.
      • Students will explore the influence of Enlightenment ideals on issues of gender and abolition by examining the ideas of individuals such as Mary Wollstonecraft and William Wilberforce.
        Students will examine enlightened despots including Catherine the Great.
    • 10.2c Individuals and groups drew upon principles of the Enlightenment to spread rebellions and call for revolutions in France and the Americas.
      • Students will examine evidence related to the preconditions of the French Revolution and the course of the revolution, noting the roles of Olympe de Gouges, Maximilien Robespierre, and Napoleon Bonaparte.
        Students will examine the evidence related to the impacts of the French Revolution on resistance and revolutionary movements, noting the roles of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simon Bolivar.

Grade 11

  • 11.1 COLONIAL FOUNDATIONS (1607-1763): European colonization in North America prompted cultural contact and exchange between diverse peoples; cultural differences and misunderstandings at times led to conflict. A variety of factors contributed to the development of regional differences, including social and racial hierarchies, in colonial America.
    • 11.1b A number of factors influenced colonial economic development, social structures, and labor systems, causing variation by region.
      • Students will analyze slavery as a deeply established component of the colonial economic system and social structure, indentured servitude vs. slavery, the increased concentration of slaves in the South, and the development of slavery as a racial institution.
    • 11.1c Colonial political developments were influenced by British political traditions, Enlightenment ideas, and the colonial experience. Self-governing structures were common, and yet varied across the colonies.
      • Students will examine colonial political institutions to determine how they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas, British institutions such as the Magna Carta, and the colonial experience.
        Students will examine colonial democratic principles by studying documents such as the Mayflower Compact and the Maryland Toleration Act of 1649, colonial governmental structures such as New England town meetings and the Virginia House of Burgesses, and the practice of the right of petition in New Netherland.
  • 11.2 CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS (1763-1824): Growing political and economic tensions led to the America colonists to declare their independence from Great Britain. Once independent, the new nation confronted the challenge of creating a stable federal republic.
    • 11.2a Following the French and Indian War, the British government attempted to gain greater political and economic control over the colonies. Colonists resisted these efforts, leading to increasing tensions between the colonists and the British government.
      • Students will examine British efforts to gain greater political and economic control, such as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, the Townsend Acts, the Tea Act, the Boston Massacre, and the Coercive Acts, and colonial reactions to these efforts.
    • 11.2b Failed attempts to mitigate the conflicts between the British government and the colonists led the colonists to declare independence, which they eventually won through the Revolutionary War, which affected individuals in different ways.
      • Students will examine the purpose of and the ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence and consider its long-term impacts.
      • Students will examine the impacts of the Revolutionary War on workers, African Americans, women, and Native Americans.
    • 11.2c Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to a convention whose purpose was to revise the Articles of Confederation but instead resulted in the writing of a new Constitution. The ratification debate over the proposed Constitution led the Federalists to agree to add a bill of rights to the Constitution.
      • Students will examine the weaknesses and successes of government under the Articles of Confederation.
      • Students will explore the development of the Constitution, including the major debates and their resolutions, which included compromises over representation, taxation, and slavery.
      • Students will examine the structure, power, and function of the federal government as created by the Constitution, including key constitutional principles such as the division of power between federal and state government, the separation of powers at the federal level, the creation of checks and balances, the sovereignty of the people, and judicial independence.
      • Students will examine the key points of debate expressed in the Federalist Papers and the Antifederalist Papers, focusing on the protection of individual rights and the proper size for a republic.
      • Students will examine the rights and protections provided by the Bill of Rights and to whom they initially applied.
    • 11.2d Under the new Constitution, the young nation sought to achieve national security and political stability, as the three branches of government established their relationships with each.
      • Students will identify presidential actions and precedents established by George Washington, including those articulated in his Farewell Address.
      • Students will examine Hamilton’s economic plan, the debate surrounding the plan, and its impacts on the development of political parties.
      • Students will examine the tradition of a peaceful transfer of power established in the presidential election of 1800 and compare it to the presidential election of 2000, focusing on the roles of the Electoral College and Congress in 1800 and the Electoral College and the Supreme Court in 2000.
      • Students will examine Supreme Court cases, including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden, and analyze how these decisions strengthened the powers of the federal government.
  • 11.3 EXPANSION, NATIONALISM, AND SECTIONALISM (1800-1865): As the nation expanded, growing sectional tensions, especially over slavery, resulted in political and constitutional crises that culminated in the Civil War.
    • 11.3a American nationalism was both strengthened and challenged by territorial expansion and economic growth.
      • Students will examine how the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine strengthened nationalism.
      • Students will examine Jackson’s presidency, noting the ways it strengthened presidential power yet challenged constitutional principles in the case of Worcester v. Georgia (1832), including the controversy concerning the Indian Removal Act and its implementation.
    • 11.3b Different perspectives concerning constitutional, political, economic, and social issues contributed to the growth of sectionalism.
      • Students will compare different perspectives on States rights by examining the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions and the nullification crisis.
      • Students will investigate the development of the abolitionist movement, focusing on Nat Turner’s Rebellion, Sojourner Truth, William Lloyd Garrison (The Liberator), Frederick Douglass (The Autobiography of Frederick Douglass and The North Star), and Harriet Beecher Stowe (Uncle Tom’s Cabin).
      • Students will examine the emergence of the women’s rights movement out of the abolitionist movement, including the role of the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and evaluate the demands made at the Seneca Falls Convention (1848).
      • Students will examine the issues surrounding the expansion of slavery into new territories, by exploring the Missouri Compromise, Manifest Destiny, Texas and the Mexican-American war, The Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown’s raid.
    • 11.3c Long-standing disputes over States rights and slavery and the secession of Southern states from the Union, sparked by the election of Abraham Lincoln, led to the Civil War. After the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves became a major Union goal. The Civil War resulted in tremendous human loss and physical destruction.
      • Students will examine the expansion of executive and federal power as they relate to the suspension of habeas corpus within the Union and the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
      • Students will analyze the ideas expressed in the Gettysburg Address, considering its long- term effects.
  • 11.4 POST-CIVIL WAR ERA (1865-1900): Reconstruction resulted in political reunion and expanded constitutional rights. However, those rights were undermined, and issues of inequality continued for African Americans, women, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Chinese immigrants.
    • 11.4a Between 1865 and 1900, constitutional rights were extended to African Americans. However, their ability to exercise these rights was undermined by individuals, groups, and governmental institutions.
      • Students will examine the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments and consider the role of Radical Republicans in Reconstruction.
      • Students will investigate the ways individuals, groups, and government institutions limited the rights of African Americans, including the use of Black Codes, the passage of the Jim Crow laws, the Ku Klux Klan, restrictions on voting rights, and Supreme Court cases including the Civil Rights Cases (1883) and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
      • Students will examine the ways in which freedmen attempted to build independent lives, including the activities of the Freedmen’s Bureau, the creation of educational institutions, and political participation.
      • Students will examine the impacts of the election of 1876 and the compromise of 1877 on African Americans.
        o 11.4b The 14th and 15th amendments failed to address the rights of  women.
      • Students will examine the exclusion of women from the 14th and 15th amendments and the subsequent struggle for voting and increased property rights in the late 19th century. The students will examine the work of Susan B. Anthony.
  • 11.5 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION (1870-1920): The United States was transformed from an agrarian to an increasingly industrial and urbanized society. Although this transformation created new economic opportunities, it also created societal problems that were addressed by a variety of reform efforts.
    • 11.5a New technologies and economic models created rapid industrial growth and transformed the United States.
      • Students will evaluate the effectiveness of state and federal attempts to regulate business by examining the Supreme Court decision in Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific R.R. v. Illinois (1886), the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), and President Theodore Roosevelt’s trust-busting role as evidenced in Northern Securities Co. v. United States (1904).
    • 11.5b Rapid industrialization and urbanization created significant challenges and societal problems that were addressed by a variety of reform efforts.
      • Students will examine Progressive Era reforms, such as the 16th and 17th amendments (1913) and the establishment of the Federal Reserve System (1913).
        Students will examine the efforts of the woman’s suffrage movement after 1900, leading to ratification of the 19th amendment (1920).
        Students will trace the temperance and prohibition movements leading to the ratification of the 18th amendment (1919).
  • 11.6 THE RISE OF AMERICAN POWER (1890-1920): Numerous factors contributed to the rise of the United States as a world power. Debates over the United States’ role in world affairs increased in response to overseas expansion and involvement in World War I. United States participation in the war had important effects on American society.
    • 11.6c World War I had important social, political, and economic effects on American society.
      • Students will examine the Supreme Court decision concerning civil liberties in Schenck v.
        United States (1919).
  • 11.7 PROSPERITY AND DEPRESSION (1920-1939): The 1920s and 1930s were a time of cultural and economic changes in the nation. During this period, the nation faced significant domestic challenges, including the Great Depression.
    • 11.7a The 1920s was a time of cultural change in the country, characterized by clashes between modern and traditional values.
      • Students will examine the cultural trends associated with the Roaring Twenties, including women’s efforts at self-expression and their changing roles.
      • Students will examine the impact of Prohibition on American society.
      • Students will examine change in immigration policy as reflected by the passage of the Quota Acts of the 1920s.
      • Students will examine the reasons for the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.
      • Students will examine the key issues related to the Scopes trial.
    • 11.7b African Americans continued to struggle for social and economic equality while expanding their own thriving and unique culture. African American cultural achievements were increasingly integrated into national culture.
      • Students will examine literary and artistic contributions associated with the Harlem Renaissance and its impact on national culture.
      • Students will examine the rise of African American racial pride and Black Nationalism, including the role of Marcus Garvey.
    • 11.7c For many Americans, the 1920s was a time of prosperity. However, underlying economic problems, reflected in the stock market crash of 1929, led to the Great Depression. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s responses to the Great Depression increased the role of the federal government.
      • Students will evaluate President Roosevelt’s leadership during the Depression, including key legislative initiatives of the New Deal, expansion of federal government power, and the constitutional challenge represented by his court-packing effort.
  • 11.8 WORLD WAR II (1935-1945): The participation of the United States in World War II was a transformative event for the nation and its role in the world.
    • 11.8b United States entry into World War II had a significant impact on American society.
      • Students will examine the reasons for President Roosevelt’s executive order for Japanese removal, the impact of removal on Japanese people living in the United States, and the Supreme Court’s decision in Korematsu v. United States (1944).
      • Students will examine the contributions of women, African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Mexican workers, and Mexican Americans to the war effort, as well as the discrimination that they experienced in the military and workforce.
    • 11.8c In response to World War II and the Holocaust, the United States played a major role in efforts to prevent such human suffering in the future.
      • Students will examine the contributions of Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson and his arguments made as Chief Prosecutor for the United States at the Nuremburg War Crimes trials.
  • 11.9 COLD WAR (1945-1990): In the period following World War II, the United States entered into an extended era of international conflict called the Cold War which influenced foreign and domestic policy for more than 40 years.
    • 11.9a After World War II, ideological differences led to political tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. In an attempt to halt the spread of Soviet influence, the United States pursued a policy of containment.
      • Students will examine domestic concerns about the spread communism and the rise of McCarthyism.
      • Students will examine the congressional effort to limit presidential power through the War Powers Act.
  • 11.10 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE/DOMESTIC ISSUES (1945-present): Racial, gender, and socioeconomic inequalities were addressed by individuals, groups, and organizations. Varying political philosophies prompted debates over the role of the federal government in regulating the economy and providing a social safety net.
    • 11.10a After World War II, long-term demands for equality by African Americans led to the civil rights movement. The efforts of individuals, groups, and institutions helped to redefine African American civil rights, though numerous issues remain unresolved.
      • Students will examine the roles and impact of individuals such as Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., Stokely Carmichael, Fannie Lou Hamer, and Malcolm X on the movement and their perspectives on change.
      • Students will examine the role of groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the movement, their goals and strategies, and major contributions.
      • Students will examine judicial actions and legislative achievements during the movement, such as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964) and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
      • Students will analyze the significance of key events in the movement, including the Montgomery bus boycott, federal intervention at Little Rock, Arkansas; the Birmingham protest; and the March on Washington.
    • 11.10b Individuals, diverse groups, and organizations have sought to bring about change in American society through a variety of methods.
      • Students will trace the following efforts in terms of issues/goals, key individuals and groups, and successes/limitations:
      • Modern women’s movement (e.g., The Feminine Mystique [1963], National Organization for Women , Equal Pay Act and Title IX, Roe v. Wade).
      • Native Americans (e.g., American Indian Movement, Russell Means, native identity, and land claims).
      • Brown Power (Chicano) movement (e.g., Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers).
      • People with disabilities (e.g. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [1975], Americans with Disabilities Act [1990]).
      • Rights of the accused (e.g., Mapp v. Ohio [1961], Gideon v. Wainwright [1963], Miranda v. Arizona [1966]).
      • Immigration (e.g., Immigration Act of 1965, Immigration Act of 1986, continuing debates over immigration reform).
      • Gay Rights and the LGBT movement (e.g., Stonewall Inn riots [1969], efforts for equal legal rights).
      • Environment (e.g., Silent Spring [1962], Clean Air Act of 1970, Clean Water Act of 1972, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Environmental Protection Agency [1970], Reagan’s policy).
      • Students rights (e.g., Engel v. Vitale [1962], Tinker v. Des Moines School District [1969], New Jersey v. TLO [1985]).
  • 11.11 THE UNITED STATES IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD (1990-present): The United States’ political and economic status in the world has faced external and internal challenges related to international conflicts, economic competition, and globalization. Throughout this time period, the nation has continued to debate and define its role in the world.
    • 11.11b In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States launched the War on Terror, which involved controversial foreign and domestic policies.
      • Students will evaluate the USA PATRIOT Act, including constitutional issues raised about the violation of civil liberties by the federal government’s electronic surveillance programs.

Grade 12

  • 12.G1 FOUNDATIONS of AMERICAN DEMOCRACY: The principles of American democracy are reflected in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights and in the organization and actions of federal, state, and local government entities. The interpretation and application of American democratic principles continue to evolve and be debated.
    • 12.G1a Enlightenment ideas such as natural rights, the social contract, popular sovereignty, and representative government greatly influenced the framers of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
    • 12.G1b The Constitution created a unique political system that distributes powers and responsibilities among three different branches of government at the federal level and between state and federal governments. State constitutions address similar structures and responsibilities for their localities.
    • 12.G1c Limited government is achieved through the separation of powers between three different branches. The system of checks and balances is part of this limited government structure at all levels of government.
    • 12.G1d The rule of law is a system in which no one, including government, is above the law. The United States legal system has evolved over time as the result of implementation and interpretation of common law, constitutional law, statutory law, and administrative regulations.
    • 12.G1e The powers not delegated specifically in the Constitution are reserved to the states. Though the powers and responsibilities of the federal government have expanded over time, there is an ongoing debate over this shift in power and responsibility.
    • 12.G1f The Constitution includes a clearly defined and intentionally rigorous process for amendment. This process requires state and federal participation, and allows the Constitution to evolve and change.
  • 12.G2 CIVIL RIGHTS and CIVIL LIBERTIES: The United States Constitution aims to protect individual freedoms and rights that have been extended to more groups of people over time. These rights and freedoms continue to be debated, extended to additional people, and defined through judicial interpretation. In engaging in issues of civic debate, citizens act with an appreciation of differences and are able to participate in constructive dialogue with those who hold different perspectives.
    • 12.G2a Equality before the law and due process are two fundamental values that apply to all under the jurisdiction of the United States. While the United States legal system aims to uphold the values of equality before the law, due process, human dignity, freedom of conscience, inalienable rights, and civility, the extent to which the legal system upholds these values in practice is an issue of ongoing civic debate.
    • 12.G2b The Constitution aims to protect, among other freedoms, individual and group rights to freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of petition, and freedom of religion. The extent to which these ideals exist in practice and how these protections should be applied in a changing world continues to be an issue of ongoing civil debate.
    • 12.G2c An independent judicial system is an integral part of the process that interprets and defends citizens’ freedoms and rights. Issues pertaining to the flexibility of judicial interpretation and the impartiality of justices in practice are continued sources of public debate.
    • 12.G2d The definition of civil rights has broadened over the course of United States history, and the number of people and groups legally ensured of these rights has also expanded. However, the degree to which rights extend equally and fairly to all (e.g., race, class, gender, sexual orientation) is a continued source of civic contention.
    • 12.G2e Rights are not absolute; they vary with legal status, with location (as in schools and workplaces), and with circumstance. The different statuses of United States residency bring with them specific protections, rights, and responsibilities. Minors have specific rights in school, in the workplace, in the community, and in the family. The extension of rights across location, circumstance, age, and legal status is a subject of civic discourse.
    • 12G2f Freedom of the press is an essential element of a democratic system, and allows for a citizen to receive and interpret information representing different points of view. Freedom of the press has limits, which are intended to protect the rights of individuals and other entities. The degree to which the press is free and impartial in practice is a source of ongoing debate.