North Carolina

North Carolina State Board of Education, Policy Manual:

16 N.C.A.C. 6D.0503 FUTURE-READY CORE COURSE OF STUDY: For students entering 9th grade in 2009-2010, 2010-2011 or 2011-2012, 3 credits of social studies in Civics and Economics, U.S. History and World History. For students entering 9th grade in 2012-2013 and later, 4 credits of social studies in Civics and Economics; American History I: The Founding Principles and American History II or AP US History and one additional social studies elective course; and World History.

North Carolina General Assembly, Basic Education Program:

N.C. Gen. Stat. §115C-81.g.1 “Civic Literacy &emdash; Local boards of education shall require during the high school years the teaching of a semester course “American History I – The Founding Principles,” to include at least the following:

  • The Creator-endowed inalienable rights of the people.
  • Structure of government, separation of powers with checks and balances.
  • Frequent and free elections in a representative government.
  • Rule of law.
  • Equal justice under the law.
  • Private property rights.
  • Federalism.
  • Due process.
  • Individual rights as set forth in the Bill of Rights.
  • Individual responsibility.

A passing grade in the course shall be required for graduation from high school.”

N.C. Gen. Stat. §115C-81.g.3a “Local boards of education shall allow and may encourage any public school teacher or administrator to read or post in a public school building, classroom, or event, excerpts or portions of writings, documents, and records that reflect the history of the United States, including, but not limited to, (i) the preamble to the North Carolina Constitution, (ii) the Declaration of Independence, (iii) the United States Constitution, (iv) the Mayflower Compact, (v) the national motto, (vi) the National Anthem, (vii) the Pledge of Allegiance, (viii) the writings, speeches, documents, and proclamations of the founding fathers and Presidents of the United States, (ix) decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, and (x) acts of the Congress of the United States, including the published text of the Congressional Record.”

North Carolina Social Studies Standards

Grade K

  • K.C&G.1 Understand the roles of a citizen.
    • K.C&G.1.2 Explain why citizens obey rules in the classroom, school, home and neighborhood.

Grade 1

  • 1.H.1 Understand that history tells a story of how people and events changed society over time.
    • 1.H.1.3 Explain why national holidays are celebrated (Constitution Day, Independence Day, Martin Luther King, Jr., Memorial Day, Presidents’ Day, etc.).
  • 1.C&G.1 Understand the importance of rules.

Grade 2

  • 2.C&G.1 Understand the purpose of governments.
    • 2.C&G.1.2 Explain how governments establish order, provide security and create laws to manage conflict.

Grade 5

  • 5.H.1 Analyze the chronology of key events in the United States.
    • 5.H.1.2 Summarize the political, economic and social aspects of colonial life in the thirteen colonies.
  • 5.H.2 Understand the role of prominent figures in shaping the United States.
    • 5.H.2.1 Summarize the contributions of the “Founding Fathers” to the development of our country.
    • 5.H.2.2 Explain how key historical figures have exemplified values and principles of American democracy.
    • 5.H.2.3 Compare the changing roles of women and minorities on American society from the Pre- Colonial era through Reconstruction.
  • 5.C&G.1 Understand the development, structure and function of government in the United States.
    • 5.C&G.1.1 Explain how ideas of various governments influenced the development of the United States government (Roman, Greek, Iroquois, European and British).
    • 5.C&G.1.2 Summarize the organizational structures and powers of the United States government (legislative, judicial and executive branches of government).
    • 5.C&G.1.3 Analyze historical documents that shaped the foundation of the United States government.
  • 5.C&G.2 Analyze life in a democratic republic through the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
    • 5.C&G.2.1 Understand the values and principles of a democratic republic.
    • 5.C&G.2.2 Analyze the rights and responsibilities of United States citizens in relation to the concept of the “common good” according to the United States Constitution (Bill of Rights).
    • 5.C&G.2.3 Exemplify ways in which the rights, responsibilities and privileges of citizens are protected under the United States Constitution.
    • 5.C&G.2.4 Explain why civic participation is important in the United States.

Grade 6

  • 6.C&G.1 Understand the development of government in various civilizations, societies and regions.
    • 6.C&G.1.1 Explain the origins and structures of various governmental systems (e.g., democracy, absolute monarchy and constitutional monarchy).
    • 6.C&G.1.2 Summarize the ideas that shaped political thought in various civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., divine right, equality, liberty, citizen participation and integration of religious principles).
    • 6.C&G.1.4 Compare the role (e.g. maintain order and enforce societal values and beliefs) and evolution of laws and legal systems (e.g. need for and changing nature of codified system of laws and punishment) in various civilizations, societies and regions.

Grade 7

  • 7.C&G.1 Understand the development of government in modern societies and regions.
    • 7.C&G.1.1 Summarize the ideas that have shaped political thought in various societies and regions (e.g., Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution, democracy, communism and socialism).
    • 7.C&G.1.2 Evaluate how the Western concept of democracy has influenced the political ideas of modern societies.
    • 7.C&G.1.4 Compare the sources of power and governmental authority in various societies (e.g., monarchs, dictators, elected officials, anti-government groups and religious, political factions).

Grade 8

  • 8.H.2 Understand the ways in which conflict, compromise and negotiation have shaped North Carolina and the United States.
    • 8.H.2.1 Explain the impact of economic, political, social, and military conflicts (e.g. war, slavery, states’ rights and citizenship and immigration policies) on the development of North Carolina and the United States.
    • 8.H.2.2 Summarize how leadership and citizen actions (e.g. the founding fathers, the Regulators, the Greensboro Four, and participants of the Wilmington Race Riots, 1898) influenced the outcome of key conflicts in North Carolina and the United States.
    • 8.H.2.3 Summarize the role of debate, compromise and negotiation during significant periods in the history of North Carolina and the United States.
  • 8.C&G.1 Analyze how democratic ideals shaped government in North Carolina and the United States.
    • 8.C&G.1.1 Summarize democratic ideals expressed in local, state, and national government (e.g. limited government, popular sovereignty, separation of powers, republicanism, federalism and individual rights).
  • 8.C&G.1.2 Evaluate the degree to which democratic ideals are evident in historical documents from North Carolina and the United States (e.g. the Mecklenburg Resolves, the Halifax Resolves, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Bill of Rights and the principles outlined in the US Constitution and North Carolina Constitutions of 1776, 1868 and 1971).
  • 8.C&G.1.3 Analyze differing viewpoints on the scope and power of state and national governments (e.g., Federalists and anti-Federalists, education, immigration and healthcare).
  • 8.C&G.1.4 Analyze access to democratic rights and freedoms among various groups in North Carolina and the United States (e.g. enslaved people, women, wage earners, landless farmers, American Indians, African Americans and other ethnic groups).
  • 8.C&G.2 Understand the role that citizen participation plays in societal change.
  • 8.C&G.2.3 Explain the impact of human and civil rights issues throughout North Carolina and United States history.

High School World History

  • WH.H.3 Understand how conflict and innovation influenced political, religious, economic and social changes in medieval civilizations.
    • WH.H.3.2 Explain how religious and secular struggles for authority impacted the structure of government and society in Europe, Asia, and Africa (e.g., Cluniac Reforms, common law, Magna Carta, conflicts between popes and emperors, Crusades, religious schisms, Hundred Years’ War, etc.).
  • WH.H.6 Understand the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.
    • WH.H.6.1 Explain how new ideas and theories of the universe altered political thought and affected economic and social conditions (e.g., Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, rationalism, secularism, humanism, tolerance, empiricism, natural rights, contractual government, laissez- faire economics, Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, Newton, inductive and deductive reasoning, heliocentric, inquisition, works of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bolivar, Jefferson, Paine, Adam Smith, etc.).
    • WH.H.6.2 Analyze political revolutions in terms of their causes and impact on independence, governing bodies and church-state relations. (e.g., Glorious Revolution, American Revolution, French Revolution, Russian Revolution, Haitian, Mexican, Chinese, etc.).

High School American History

  • AH1.H.2 Analyze key political, economic and social turning points in American History using historical thinking.
    • AH1.H.2.1 Analyze key political, economic, and social turning points from colonization through Reconstruction in terms of causes of effects (e.g., conflicts, legislation, elections, innovations, leadership, movements, Supreme Court decisions, etc.).
    • AH1.H.2.2 Evaluate key turning points from colonization through Reconstruction in terms of their lasting impact (e.g., conflicts, legislation, elections, innovations, leadership, movements, Supreme Court decisions, etc.).
  • AH1.H.3 Understand the factors that led to exploration, settlement, movement, and expansion and their impact on United States development over time.
    • AH1.H.3.1 Analyze how economic, political, social, military and religious factors influenced European exploration and American colonial settlement (e.g., Reformation, mercantilism, improvements in navigation technology, colonization, defeat of Spanish Armada, Great Awakening, etc.).
  • AH1.H.4 Analyze how conflict and compromise have shaped politics, economics, and culture in the United States.
    • AH1.H.4.1 Analyze the political issues and conflicts that impacted the United States through Reconstruction and the compromises that resulted (e.g., American Revolution, Constitutional Convention, Bill of Rights, development of political parties, nullification, slavery, states’ rights, Civil War).
  • AH1.H.5 Understand how tensions between freedom, equality and power have shaped the political, economic and social development of the United States.
    • AH1.H.5.1 Summarize how the philosophical, ideological and/or religious views on freedom and equality contributed to the development of American political and economic systems through Reconstruction (e.g., natural rights, First Great Awakening, Declaration of Independence, transcendentalism, suffrage, abolition, “slavery as a peculiar institution”, etc.).
    • AH1.H.5.2 2 Explain how judicial, legislative and executive actions have affected the distribution of power between levels of government from colonization through Reconstruction (e.g., the Marshall Court, Jacksonian era, nullification, secession, etc.).

High School American History II

  • AH2.H.2 Analyze key political, economic and social turning points in American History using historical thinking.
    • AH2.H.2.1 Analyze key political, economic, and social turning points since the end of Reconstruction in terms of causes and effects (e.g., conflicts, legislation, elections, innovations, leadership, movements, Supreme Court decisions, etc.).
    • AH2.H.2.2 2 Evaluate key turning points since the end of Reconstruction in terms of their lasting impact (e.g., conflicts, legislation, elections, innovations, leadership, movements, Supreme Court decisions, etc.).
  • AH2.H.4 Analyze how conflict and compromise have shaped politics, economics and culture in the United States.
    • AH2.H.4.3 Analyze the social and religious conflicts, movements and reforms that impacted the United States since Reconstruction in terms of participants, strategies, opposition, and results (e.g., Prohibition, Social Darwinism, Eugenics, civil rights, anti-war protest, etc.).
    • AH2.H.4.4 Analyze the cultural conflicts that impacted the United States since Reconstruction and the compromises that resulted (e.g., nativism, Back to Africa movement, modernism, fundamentalism, black power movement, women’s movement, counterculture, Wilmington Race Riots, etc.).
  • AH2.H.5 Understand how tensions between freedom, equality and power have shaped the political, economic and social developments of the United States.
    • AH2.H.5.1 Summarize how the philosophical, ideological and/or religious views on freedom and equality contributed to the development of American political and economic systems since Reconstruction (e.g., “separate but equal”, Social Darwinism, social gospel, civil service system, suffrage, Harlem Renaissance, the Warren Court, Great Society programs, American Indian Movement, etc.).
    • AH2.H.5.2 Explain how judicial, legislative and executive actions have affected the distribution of power between levels of government since Reconstruction (e.g., New Deal, Great Society, Civil Rights, etc.).

High School Civics and Economics

  • CE.C&G.1 Analyze the foundations and development of American government in terms of principles and values.
    • CE.C&G.1.1 Explain how the tensions over power and authority led America’s founding fathers to develop a constitutional democracy (e.g., mercantilism, salutary neglect, taxation and representation, boycott and protest, independence, American Revolution, Articles of Confederation, Ben Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, Sons of Liberty, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.1.2 Explain how the Enlightenment and other contributing theories impacted the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights to help promote liberty, justice and equality (e.g., natural rights, classical theories of government, Magna Carta, Montesquieu, Locke, English Bill of Rights, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.1.3 Evaluate how debates on power and authority between Federalists and Anti- Federalists have helped shape government in the United States over time (e.g., Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, Federalist Papers, strong central government, protection of individual rights, Elastic Clause, Bill of Rights, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.1.4 Analyze the principles and ideals underlying American democracy in terms of how they promote freedom (e.g., separation of powers, rule of law, limited government, democracy, consent of the governed / individual rights &emdash;life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, self-government, representative democracy, equal opportunity, equal protection under the law, diversity, patriotism, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.1.5 Evaluate the fundamental principles of American politics in terms of the extent to which they have been used effectively to maintain constitutional democracy in the United States (e.g., rule of law, limited government, democracy, consent of the governed, etc.).
  • CE.C&G.2 Analyze government systems within the United States in terms of their structure, function and relationships.
    • CE.C&G.2.1 Analyze the structures of national, state and local governments in terms of ways they are organized to maintain order, security, welfare of the public and the protection of citizens (e.g., federalism, the three branches, court system, jurisdictions, judicial process, agencies, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.2.2 Summarize the functions of North Carolina state and local governments within the federal system of government (e.g., local charters, maintain a militia, pass ordinances and laws, collect taxes, supervise elections, maintain highways, types of local governments, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.2.3 Evaluate the U.S. Constitution as a “living Constitution” in terms of how the words in the Constitution and Bill of Rights have been interpreted and applied throughout their existence (e.g., precedents, rule of law, stare decisis, judicial review, supremacy, equal protections, “establishment clause”, symbolic speech, due process, right to privacy, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.2.4 2.4 Compare the Constitutions and the structures of the United States and North Carolina governments (e.g., the various NC Constitutions, Bill of Rights, Declaration of Rights, Preambles, the organization of, the powers of, responsibilities, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.2.5 Compare United States system of government within the framework of the federal and state structures as well as in how they relate with governmental systems of other nations (e.g., Republicanism, federalism).
    • CE.C&G.2.6 Evaluate the authority federal, state and local governments have over individuals’ rights and privileges (e.g., Bill of Rights, Delegated Powers, Reserved Powers, Concurrent Powers, Pardons, Writ of habeas corpus, Judicial Process, states’ rights, Patriot Act, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.2.7 Analyze contemporary issues and governmental responses at the local, state, and national levels in terms of how they promote the public interest and/or general welfare (e.g., taxes, immigration, naturalization, civil rights, economic development, annexation, redistricting, zoning, national security, health care, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.2.8 8 Analyze America’s two-party system in terms of the political and economic views that led to its emergence and the role that political parties play in American politics (e.g., Democrat, Republican, promotion of civic responsibility, Federalists, Anti-Federalists, Influence of third parties, precincts, “the political spectrum”, straight ticket, canvass, planks, platform, etc.).
  • CE.C&G.3 Analyze the legal system within the United States in terms of development, execution and protection of citizenship rights at all levels of government.
    • CE.C&G.3.1 Analyze how the rule of law establishes limits on both the governed and those who govern while holding true to the ideal of equal protection under the law (e.g., the Fourteenth Amendments, Americans with Disabilities Act, equal opportunity legislation).
    • CE.C&G.3.2 Compare lawmaking processes of federal, state and local governments (e.g., committee system, legislative process, bills, laws, veto, filibuster, cloture, proposition, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.3.3 Analyze laws and policies in terms of their intended purposes, who has authority to create them and how they are enforced (e.g., laws, policies, public policy, regulatory, symbolic, procedural, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.3.4 Explain how individual rights are protected by varieties of law (e.g., Bill of Rights, Supreme Court Decisions, constitutional law, criminal law, civil law, Tort, Administrative law, Statutory law and International law, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.3.5 Compare jurisdictions and methods of law enforcement applied at each level of government, the consequences of noncompliance to laws at each level and how each reflects equal protection under the law (e.g., Department of Justice, Regulatory Commissions, FBI. SBI, Homeland Security, Magistrate, State troopers, Sheriff, City police, Ordinance, Statute, Regulation, Fines, Arrest, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.3.6 Explain ways laws have been influenced by political parties, constituents, interest groups, lobbyists, the media and public opinion (e.g., extension of suffrage, labor legislation, civil rights legislation, military policy, environmental legislation, business regulation and educational policy).
    • CE.C&G.3.7 Summarize the importance of the right to due process of law for individuals accused of crimes (e.g., habeas corpus, presumption of innocence, impartial tribunal, trial by jury, right to counsel, right against self-incrimination, protection against double jeopardy, right of appeal).
    • CE.C&G.3.8 Evaluate the rights of individuals in terms of how well those rights have been upheld by democratic government in the United States.
  • CE.C&G.4 Understand how democracy depends upon the active participation of citizens.
    • CE.C&G.4.1 Compare citizenship in the American constitutional democracy to membership in other types of governments (e.g., right to privacy, civil rights, responsibilities, political rights, right to due process, equal protection under the law, participation, freedom, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.4.2 Explain how the development of America’s national identity derived from principles in the Declaration of Independence, US Constitution and Bill of Rights (e.g., inalienable rights, consent of the governed, popular sovereignty, religious and political freedom, separation of powers, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.4.5 Explain the changing perception and interpretation of citizenship and naturalization (e.g., aliens, Interpretations of the 14th amendment, citizenship, patriotism, equal rights under the law, etc.).
  • CE.C&G.5 Analyze how political and legal systems within and outside of the United States provide a means to balance competing interests and solve conflicts.
    • CE.C&G.5.2 Analyze state and federal courts by outlining their jurisdictions and the adversarial nature of the judicial process (e.g., Appellate, Exclusive, Concurrent, Original, types of federal courts, types of state courts, oral argument, courtroom rules, Supreme Court, opinions, Court Docket, Prosecutor/Prosecution, Complaint, Defendant, Plaintiff, hearing, bail, indictment, sentencing, appeal, etc.).
    • CE.C&G.5.4 Explain how conflict between constitutional provisions and the requirements of foreign policy are resolved (e.g., the power of Congress to declare war and the need for the president to make expeditious decisions in times of international emergency, the power of the President to make treaties and the need for the Senate to approve them).