Ohio

Ohio Revised Code, Title 33:

Ohio Rev. Code Ann § 3313.603 (B) High School Graduation Requirements: “(6) History and government, one unit, which shall include both of the following: (a) American history, one-half unit; (b) American government, one-half unit; and (7) Social studies, two units.” (M) Beginning with students who enter ninth grade for the first time on or after July 1, 2012, the required study of American history and American government shall include the study of all of the following documents: “(1) The Declaration of Independence; (2) The Northwest Ordinance; (3) The Constitution of the United States with emphasis on the Bill of Rights; and (4) The Ohio Constitution.”

Ohio Social Studies Standards

Grade K

  • 4. Nations are represented by symbols and practices. Symbols and practices of the United States include the American flag, Pledge of Allegiance and the National Anthem.
  • 10. The purpose of rules and authority figures is to provide order, security and safety in the home, school and community.

Grade 1

  • 9. Collaboration requires group members to respect the rights and opinions of others.
  • 10. Rules exist in different settings. The principles of fairness should guide rules and the consequences for breaking rules.

Grade 2

  • 12. There are different rules that govern behavior in different settings.

Grade 3

  • 11. Laws are rules which apply to all people in a community and describe ways people are expected to behave. Laws promote order and security, provide public services and protect the rights of individuals in the local community.
  • 12. Governments have authority to make and enforce laws.

Grade 4

  • 4. The 13 colonies came together around a common cause of liberty and justice, uniting to fight for independence during the American Revolution and to form a new nation.
  • 5. The Northwest Ordinance established a process for the creation of new states and specified democratic ideals to be incorporated in the states of the Northwest Territory.
  • 7. Sectional issues divided the United States after the War of 1812. Ohio played a key role in these issues, particularly with the anti-slavery movement and the Underground Railroad.
  • 15. Individuals have a variety of opportunities to participate in and influence their state and national government. Citizens have both rights and responsibilities in Ohio and the United States.
  • 17. Effective participants in a democratic society engage in compromise.
  • 18. Laws can protect rights, provide benefits and assign responsibilities.
  • 19. The U.S. Constitution establishes a system of limited government and protects citizens’ rights; five of these rights are addressed in the First Amendment.
  • 20. A constitution is a written plan for government. Democratic constitutions provide the framework for government in Ohio and the United States.
  • 21. The Ohio Constitution and the U.S. Constitution separate the major responsibilities of government among three branches.

Grade 5

  • 12. Democracies, dictatorships and monarchies are categories for understanding the relationship between those in power or authority and citizens.

Grade 6

  • 10. Governments can be categorized as monarchies, theocracies, dictatorships or democracies, but categories may overlap and labels may not accurately represent how governments function. The extent of citizens’’ liberties and responsibilities varies according to limits on governmental authority.

Grade 7

  • 6. The Renaissance in Europe introduced revolutionary ideas, leading to cultural, scientific and social changes.
  • 7. The Reformation introduced changes in religion including the emergence of Protestant faiths and a decline in the political power and social influence of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 17. Greek democracy and the Roman Republic were radical departures from monarchy and theocracy, influencing the structure and function of modern democratic governments.

Grade 8

  • 4. The practice of race-based slavery led to the forced migration of Africans to the American colonies. Their knowledge and traditions contributed to the development of those colonies and the United States.
  • 5. The ideas of the Enlightenment and dissatisfaction with colonial rule led English colonies to write the Declaration of Independence and launch the American Revolution.
  • 6. The outcome of the American Revolution was national independence and new political, social and economic relationships for the American people.
  • 7. Problems arising under the Articles of Confederation led to debate over the adoption of the U.S. Constitution.
  • 8. Actions of early presidential administrations established a strong federal government, provided peaceful transitions of power and repelled a foreign invasion.
  • 11. Disputes over the nature of federalism, complicated by economic developments in the United States, resulted in sectional issues, including slavery, which led to the American Civil War.
  • 12. The Reconstruction period resulted in changes to the U.S. Constitution, an affirmation of federal authority and lingering social and political differences.
  • 20. The U.S. Constitution established a federal system of government, a representative democracy and a framework with separation of powers and checks and balances.
  • 21. The U.S. Constitution protects citizens’ rights by limiting the powers of government.

High School American History

  • 5. The Declaration of Independence reflects an application of Enlightenment ideas to the grievances of British subjects in the American colonies.
  • 6. The Northwest Ordinance addressed a need for government in the Northwest Territory and established precedents for the future governing of the United States.
  • 7. Problems facing the national government under the Articles of Confederation led to the drafting of the Constitution of the United States. The framers of the Constitution applied ideas of Enlightenment in conceiving the new government.
  • 8. The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers structured the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States.
  • 9. The Bill of Rights is derived from English law, ideas of the Enlightenment, the experiences of the American colonists, early experiences of self-government and the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States.
  • 13. Following Reconstruction, old political and social structures reemerged and racial discrimination was institutionalized.
  • 17. Racial intolerance, anti-immigrant attitudes and the Red Scare contributed to social unrest after World War I.
  • 19. Movements such as the Harlem Renaissance, African-American migration, women’s suffrage and Prohibition all contributed to social change.
  • 28. Following World War II, the United States experienced a struggle for racial and gender equality and the extension of civil rights.
  • 31. Political debates focused on the extent of the role of government in the economy, environmental protection, social welfare and national security.

High School American Government

  • 5. As the supreme law of the land, the U.S. Constitution incorporates basic principles which help define the government of the United States as a federal republic including its structure, powers and relationship with the governed.
  • 6. The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers framed the national debate over the basic principles of government encompassed by the Constitution of the United States.
  • 7. Constitutional government in the United States has changed over time as a result of amendments to the U.S. Constitution, Supreme Court decisions, legislation and informal practices.
  • 8. The Bill of Rights was drafted in response to the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States.
  • 9. The Reconstruction Era prompted Amendments 13 through 15 to address the aftermath of slavery and the Civil War.
  • 10. Amendments 16 through 19 responded to calls for reform during the Progressive Era.
  • 11. Four amendments have provided for extensions of suffrage to disenfranchised groups.
  • 12. Five amendments have altered provisions for presidential election, terms, and succession to address changing historical circumstances.
  • 13. Amendments 11, 21 and 27 have addressed unique historical circumstances.
  • 16. In the United States, people have rights which protect them from undue governmental interference. Rights carry responsibilities which help define how people use their rights and which require respect for the rights of others.
  • 17. Historically, the United States has struggled with majority rule and the extension of minority rights. As a result of this struggle, the government has increasingly extended civil rights to marginalized groups and broadened opportunities for participation.

High School Modern World History

  • 5. The Scientific Revolution impacted religious, political, and cultural institutions by challenging how people viewed the world.
  • 6. Enlightenment thinkers applied reason to discover natural laws guiding human nature in social, political and economic systems and institutions.
  • 7. Enlightenment ideas challenged practices related to religious authority, absolute rule and mercantilism.
  • 8. Enlightenment ideas on the relationship of the individual and the government influenced the American Revolution, French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.
  • 10. Imperial extension had political, economic and social roots.
  • 12. The consequences of imperialism were viewed differently by the colonizers and the colonized.
  • 22. Political and social struggles have resulted in expanded rights and freedoms for women and indigenous peoples.