Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Code, Graduation Requirements:

22 Pa. Code § 57.31: Three credits in social studies…(d) The following planned courses shall be required and taught to students: (4) Social Studies– 3 planned courses, each 120-clock hours. History and Government of the United States and Pennsylvania shall be taught as required in section 1605 of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P.S. § 16-1605).

Academic Standards for Civics and Government and Economics and Geography and History:

22 Pa. Code Part I, Subpart A, Chapter 4, Appendix C: Academic Standards for Civics and Government (grades 3, 6, 9, 12) include 5.1. Principles and Documents of Government, 5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, 5.3. How Government Works, and 5.4. How International Relationships Functions. “The Academic Standards for Civics and Government are based on the Public School Code of 1949 which directs ‘…teaching and presentation of the principles and ideals of the American republican representative form of government as portrayed and experienced by the acts and policies of the framers of the Declaration of Independence and framers of the Constitution of the United States and Bill of Rights…’”

Pennsylvania Standards for Civics and Government

Grade Pre K

  • 5.1.PK.F. Identify basic American symbols (e.g., American flag).

Grade K

  • 5.1.K.A. Explain the purpose of rules.
  • 5.1.K.B. Explain the need for rules.
  • 5.1.K.F. Identify significant American holidays and their symbols.

Grade 1

  • 5.1.1.D. Explain the importance of written rules and laws.
  • 5.1.1.F. Identify national symbols.

Grade 2

  • 5.1.2.E. Describe citizens’ responsibilities to the state of Pennsylvania and the nation.
  • 5.1.2.F. Identify state symbols.

Grade 3

  • 5.1.3.D. Identify key ideas about government found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.3.F. Identify state symbols, national symbols, and national holidays.
  • 5.3.3.A. Identify the roles of the three branches of government.
  • 5.3.3.J. Identify key ideas of the form of government practiced in the United States.

Grade 4

  • 5.1.4.D. Identify key ideals about government found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.4.F. Identify state symbols, national symbols, and national holidays.
  • 5.3.4.A. Identify the roles of the three branches of government.

Grade 5

  • 5.1.5.A. Understand the rule of law in protecting property rights, individual rights and the common good.
  • 5.1.5.B. Describe the basic purposes of government in the classroom, school, community, state, and nation.
  • 5.1.5.C. Describe the principles and ideals shaping local state, and national government.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.5.D. Identify key ideas about government found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.5.E. Identify the individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution and the U.S. Constitution.
  • 5.1.5.F. Identify state symbols, national symbols, and national holidays.
  • 5.3.5.A. Describe the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government.
  • 5.3.5.B. Describe how the elected representative bodies function in making local, state, and national laws.
  • 5.3.5.E. Identify the requirements to vote in local, state, and national elections.

Grade 6

  • 5.1.6.A. Explain the effect of the rule of law in protecting property rights, individual rights, and the common good.
  • 5.1.6.B. Compare and contrast a direct democracy with a republican form of government.
  • 5.1.6.C. Explain how the principles and ideals shape local, state, and national government.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.6.D. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents and the roles played by the framers as found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.6.E. Summarize individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution and the U.S. Constitution.
  • 5.2.6.A. Compare and contrast rights and responsibilities of citizenship in the community, state, and nation.
  • 5.3.6.A. Describe the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government.
  • 5.3.6.B. Define and compare the role and structure of local, state, and national governments.
  • 5.3.6.C. Describe how local, state, and national governments provide services.
  • 5.3.6.D. Identify leadership positions and their positions and their primary duties at the local, state, and national levels.
  • 5.3.6.E. Describe the voting process, including registration, primaries, and general elections.
  • 5.3.6.F. Explain how courts resolve conflicts.

Grade 7

  • 5.1.7.A. Cite functional examples of how the rule of law protects property rights, individual rights, and the common good.
  • 5.1.7.B. Identify the different types of government and the processes they use in making laws.
  • 5.1.7.C. Explain how the principles and ideals shape local, state, and national government.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.7.D. Summarize the basic principles and ideals within documents and the roles played by the framers as found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.7.E. Compare and contrast the individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution versus the U.S. Constitution.
  • 5.2.7.A. Compare and contrast rights and responsibilities of citizenship in the community, state, and nation.
  • 5.3.7.A. Compare and contrast the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of the government.
  • 5.3.7.B. Define and compare the role and structure of local, state, and national governments.
  • 5.3.7.C. Describe how local, state, and national governments provide services.
  • 5.3.7.D. Identify leadership positions and the role of political party affiliation at the local, state, and national levels.
  • 5.3.7.F. Identify the different levels of the court system.
  • 5.3.7.J. Identify various types of governments.

Grade 8

  • 5.1.8.A. Identify the sources of the rule of law.
  • 5.1.8.B. Outline how different systems of government function.
  • 5.1.8.C. Analyze the principles and ideas that shaped local Pennsylvania, and national governments.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.8.D. Summarize the basic principles and ideals within documents and the roles played by the framers as found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.8.E. Compare and contrast the individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution versus the U.S. Constitution.
  • 5.2.8.A. Summarize the role of citizens in terms of rights and responsibilities in different government systems.
  • 5.3.8.A. Compare and contrast the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government between Pennsylvania and the Federal government.
  • 5.3.8.B. Compare and contrast the policy-making process between Pennsylvania and the federal government.
  • 5.3.8.C. Describe how local, state, and national governments provide services.
  • 5.3.8.D. Identify leadership positions and the role of political party affiliation at the local, state, and national levels.
  • 5.3.8.F. Explain the various judicial levels of the U.S. and state.
  • 5.3.8.J. Compare democracy to totalitarianism.

Grade 9

  • 5.1.9.A. Apply examples of the rule of law as related to individual rights and the common good.
  • 5.1.9.B. Analyze the major arguments advanced for the different systems of government.
  • 5.1.9.C. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.9.D. Compare and contrast the basic principles and ideals found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.9.E. Demonstrate an understanding of how the PA Constitution and the U.S. Constitution co- exist.
  • 5.2.9.A. Contrast the rights and responsibilities of a citizen in a democracy with a citizen in an authoritarian system.
  • 5.2.9.C. Examine political leadership and public service in a republican form of government.
  • 5.3.9.A. Examine the process of checks and balances among the three branches of government, including the creation of law.
  • 5.3.9.B. Analyze the roles of local, state, and national governments in policy-making.
  • 5.3.9.C. Explain how government agencies create, amend, and enforce policies in local, state, and national governments.
  • 5.3.9.E. Compare and contrast the different election processes for local, state, and national offices.
  • 5.3.9.F. Explain the Supreme Court’s role in interpreting the U.S. Constitution.
    • Individual rights
    • States’ rights
    • Civil Rights

US History 1850-Present

  • 5.1.U.A. Apply examples of the rule of law as related to individual rights and the common good.
  • 5.1.U.C. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape United States government.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.U.D. Compare and contrast the basic principles and ideals found in significant documents:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.2.U.A. Contrast the rights and responsibilities of a citizen in a democracy with a citizen in an authoritarian system.
  • 5.2.U.C. Examine political leadership and public service in a republican form of government.
  • 5.3.U.F. Analyze landmark United States Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and its Amendments.

World History 1450-Present

  • 5.1.W.B. Employ historical examples and political philosophy to evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
  • 5.2.W.A. Contrast the rights and responsibilities of a citizen in a democracy with a citizen in an authoritarian system.

Civics & Government

  • 5.1.C.A. Analyze the sources, purposes, functions of law, and how the rule of law protects individual rights and promotes common good.
  • 5.1.C.B. Employ historical examples of political philosophy to evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
  • 5.1.C.C. Evaluate the application of the principles and ideals in contemporary civic life.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.C.D. Evaluate state and federal powers based on significant documents and other critical sources.
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.C.E. Analyze and assess the rights of people as written in the PA Constitution and the U.S. Constitution.
  • 5.2.C.A. Contrast the rights and responsibilities of a citizen in a democracy with a citizen in an authoritarian system.
  • 5.2.C.C. Evaluate political leadership and public service in a republican form of government.
  • 5.3.C.A. Examine the process of checks and balances among the three branches of government, including the creation of law.
  • 5.3.C.B. Analyze the roles of local, state, and national governments in policy-making.
  • 5.3.C.C. Explain how government agencies create, amend, and enforce policies in local, state, and national governments.
  • 5.3.C.E. Compare and contrast the different election processes for local, state, and national offices.
  • 5.3.C.F. Explain the Supreme Court’s role in interpreting the U.S. Constitution.
    • Individual rights
    • States’ rights
    • Civil rights

Grade 12

  • 5.1.12.A. Analyze the sources, purposes, functions of law, and how the rule of law protects individual rights and promotes the common good.
  • 5.1.12.B. Employ historical examples and political philosophy to evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
  • 5.1.12.C. Evaluate the application of the principles and ideals in contemporary civic life.
    • Liberty/Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Justice
    • Equality
  • 5.1.12.D. Evaluate state and federal powers based on significant documents and other critical sources.
    • Declaration of Independence
    • United States Constitution
    • Bill of Rights
    • Pennsylvania Constitution
  • 5.1.12.E. Analyze and assess the rights of people as written in the PA Constitution and the U.S. Constitution.
  • 5.2.12.A. Evaluate an individual’s civil rights, responsibilities and obligations in various contemporary governments.
  • 5.2.12.C. Evaluate political leadership and public service in a republican form of government.
  • 5.3.12.A. Analyze the changes in power and authority among the three branches of government over time.
  • 5.3.12.B. Compare and contrast policy-making in various contemporary world governments.
  • 5.3.12.C. Evaluate how government agencies create, amend, and enforce regulations.
  • 5.3.12.E. Evaluate the fairness and effectiveness of the United States electoral processes, including the electoral college.
  • 5.3.12.F. Analyze landmark United States Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and its Amendments.