Vermont

Vermont State Board of Education Manual of Rules and Practices:

Graduation Requirements: (2)(D) “Three years of civics, history and the social sciences, one year of which shall be in U.S. history and government.”

Vermont Curriculum Framework:

Vermont’s Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities contains Vital Results which are the responsibility of teachers in all fields of knowledge and include Civic/Social Responsibility Standards. Under this, standards for Service are described “Learns by serving others, and participates in democratic processes.” Also in the Framework are Fields of Knowledge which cover specific content areas and include Citizenship under History and Social Sciences Standards. Topic areas under Citizenship are Meaning of Citizenship, Types of Government, Institutional Access and Human Rights.

Vermont Standards

Grades Pre K-K

  • H&SSPK-K:14 Students act as citizens by…
    • Identifying various groups that they belong to (e.g., I’m a part of a family, I’m a part of a class, I’m a part of a school, etc.).
    • Demonstrating positive interaction with group members (e.g., sharing play space).
    • Contributing to the life of the class and the school.
  • H&SSPK-K:15 Students show understanding of various forms of government by…
    • Identifying the need for rules in a variety of settings, and demonstrating appropriate behavior in a variety of settings.
    • Explaining that rules are established for the benefit of individuals and groups.
  • H&SSPK-K:17 Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by…
    • Naming various social, economic, and government institutions in their community.

Grades 1-2

  • H&SS1-2:14 Students act as citizens by…
    • Describing what his/her role is as a member of various groups.
    • Explaining their own point of view on issues that affect themselves.
    • Participating in setting and following the rules of the group, school, community.
  • H&SS1-2:15 Students show understanding of various forms of government by…
    • Identifying rules or laws that solve a specific problem or apply to a specific situation.
    • Explaining why rules and laws are written down.
    • Identifying the consequences of not following rules or laws.

Grades 3-4

  • H&SS3-4:14 Students act as citizens by…
    • Demonstrating the role of individuals in the election processes (e.g., voting in class or mock elections).
    • Describing the roots of American culture, its development and many traditions, and the ways many people from a variety of groups and backgrounds played a role in creating it.
  • H&SS3-4:15 Students show understanding of various forms of government by…
    • Comparing similarities of rules and laws.
    • Knowing where to locate written rules and laws for school and community.

Grades 5-6

  • H&SS5-6:8 Students connect the past with the present by…
    • Investigating how events, people, and ideas have shaped the United States and/or the world; and hypothesizing how different influences could have led to different consequences (e.g., How did the civil rights movement change the U.S., and how might the U.S. be different if it had never happened?).
  • H&SS5-6:9 Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by…
    • Identifying attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts (e.g., What values justified denying the women to vote?).
  • H&SS5-6:10 Students show understanding of past, present, and future time by…
    • Identifying an important event in the United States and/or world, and describing multiple causes and effects of that event.
    • Explaining transitions between eras that occurred over time (e.g., the end of the Colonial era) as well as those that occurred as a result of a pivotal event (e.g., September 11th, the writing of the Declaration of Independence).
  • H&SS5-6:14 Students act as citizens by…
    • Describing and defining the rights, principles, and responsibilities of citizenship in the U.S. (e.g., the right to vote and the responsibility to obey the law).
    • Giving examples of ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
    • Describing how an American’s identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples.
  • H&SS5-6:15 Students show understanding of various forms of government by…
    • Describing how rules and laws are created.
    • Identifying key documents on which U.S. laws are based and where to find them (e.g., Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights, U.S. Constitution).
    • Identifying the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments within the United States.
    • Describing the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; responsibility for the common good; equality of opportunity and equal protection of the law; freedom of speech and religion).
  • H&SS5-6:16 Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by…
    • Identifying a current or historic issue related to basic human rights (e.g., civil rights; women’s movement).
    • Explaining how roles and status of people have differed and changed throughout history based on gender, age, class, racial and ethnic identity, wealth, and/or social position.
    • Citing examples, both past and present, of how diversity has led to change (e.g., foods; internment camps; slavery).
    • Explaining conditions that contribute to conflict within and among individuals, communities, and nations (e.g., investigating the political, social, and economic causes of the American Revolution).
  • H&SS5-6:17 Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by…
    • Describing how different groups gain or have been denied access to various institutions, and exploring alternative ways of getting access (e.g., Women’s right to vote, access for disabled, petition).
    • Identifying examples of tensions between belief systems and government policies and laws (e.g., Christmas trees may exclude people who are not Christian; Pledge of Allegiance).

Grades 7-8

  • H&SS7-8:8 Students connect the past with the present by…
    • Investigating and evaluating how events, people, and ideas (democracy, for example) have shaped the United States and the world, and hypothesizing how different influences could have led to different consequences (e.g., How did the ideals of Greek democracy impact the world? How has European colonialism influenced race relations in Africa?).
  • H&SS7-8:9 Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by…
    • Evaluating the credibility of differing accounts of the same event(s) (e.g., account of the Revolutionary War from a colonist’s perspective vs. British perspective; the bombing of Hiroshima from the perspective of a Japanese citizen vs. an American soldier).
  • H&SS7-8:14 Students act as citizens by…
    • Comparing the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in another country to those of the U.S. (e.g., after reading accounts of elections in news articles, compare voting rights).
    • Identifying the various ways people become citizens of the U.S. (e.g., birth, naturalization).
    • Illustrating how individuals and groups have brought about change locally, nationally, or internationally (e.g., interview someone involved in civil union legislation).
    • Giving examples of ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
    • Demonstrating how identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples (e.g. Northern Ireland/Republic; socialism; capitalism).
  • H&SS7-8:15 Students show understanding of various forms of government by…
    • Describing how rules and laws are created (e.g., participating in a simulation about creating a new law).
    • Identifying key documents on which U.S. laws are based and where to find them (e.g., Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights, U.S. Constitution).
    • Identifying the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments within the United States.
    • Describing the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; responsibility for the common good; equality of opportunity and equal protection of the law; freedom of speech and religion).
  • H&SS7-8:17 Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by…
    • Comparing how different groups gain or have been denied access to various institutions, and describing the impact this has had on these groups in the U.S. and other countries (e.g., Property ownership for voting, ageism, access to education; affirmative action, due process, petition).
  • Identifying and describing examples of tensions between belief systems and government policies and laws, and identifying ways these tensions can be reduced (e.g., Gambling on reservations; neutrality of Switzerland; humanitarian aid).

Grades 9-12

  • H&SS9-12:8 Students connect the past with the present by…
    • Explaining historical origins of key ideas and concepts (e.g., Enlightenment, Manifest Destiny, religious and governmental philosophies) and how they are reinterpreted over time.
  • H&SS9-12:9 Students show understanding of how humans interpret history by…
    • Locating appropriate primary and secondary sources in order to find evidence to support his or her hypothesis.
  • H&SS9-12:10 Students show understanding of past, present, and future time by…
    • Explaining transitions between eras that occurred over time as well as those that occurred as a result of a pivotal event, and evaluating the effects of these transitions (e.g., What factors led to various democratic revolutions? What have been the long-term effects of these revolutions?).
  • H&SS9-12:14 Students act as citizens by…
    • Analyzing and evaluating changes in the interpretation of rights and responsibilities of citizenship over time (e.g., changes in voting age, changes in voting rights for women and African Americans).
    • Analyzing and evaluating the issues related to and criteria for U.S. citizenship, past and present (e.g., analyzing the issues surrounding Japanese citizens during WWII).
    • Analyzing ways in which political parties, campaigns, and elections encourage and discourage citizens to participate in the political process (e.g., voter registration drives, use of the Internet, negative campaign ads).
    • Analyzing how identity stems from beliefs in and allegiance to shared political values and principles, and how these are similar and different to other peoples (e.g. nation building in regions with disparate cultures).
  • H&SS9-12:15 Students show understanding of various forms of government by…
    • Evaluating how and why rules and laws are created, interpreted, and changed.
    • Describing how government decisions impact citizens locally, nationally, and internationally.
    • Comparing and evaluating the basic functions, structures and purposes of governments, both past and present (e.g., democracy vs. dictatorship, internal and external protection).
    • Identifying and debating issues surrounding the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., individual rights vs. common good, majority rule vs. protection of minority rights).
  • H&SS9-12:16 Students examine how different societies address issues of human interdependence by…
    • Analyzing the impact of a current or historic issue related to human rights, and explaining how the values of the time or place influenced the issue (e.g. Guantanamo, land mines, invasion of Iraq).
    • After examining issues from more than one perspective, defining and defending the rights and needs of others in the community, nation, and world (e.g., gay rights, environ- mental protection, privatization of government).
    • Evaluating the impact of differences and similarities among people that arise from factors such as cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and religious diversity, and describe their costs and benefits (e.g., affirmative action).
  • H&SS9-12:17 Students examine how access to various institutions affects justice, reward, and power by…
    • Analyzing and evaluating why groups of people or individuals have access or were denied justice (e.g., utilizing contemporary and current primary and secondary sources to determine how perspectives on the Nisei have changed).
    • Analyzing points of conflict between different political ideologies (e.g., creation of party platforms).