Washington

Washington Administrative Code, Social Studies Requirement:

WAC § 180-51-075: “one credit in United States history and government which shall include study of the Constitution of the United States…one-half credit in Washington state history and government which shall include study of the Constitution of the state of Washington…”

Washington Administrative Code, Social Studies Course Credit:

RCW 28A.230.093: If the state board of education increases the number of social studies credits required for graduation under RCW 28A.230.090, the state board “shall also require that at least one-half credit of that requirement be coursework in civics. The content of such civics coursework must include, but not be limited to: (a) Federal, state, and local government organization and procedures; (b) Rights and responsibilities of citizens addressed in the state and United States Constitutions; (c) Current issues addressed at each level of government; and (d) Electoral issues, including elections, ballot measures, initiatives and referenda.”

Washington Administrative Code, Study of Constitutions Compulsory:

Wash. Rev. Code § 28A.230.170: “The study of the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the state of Washington shall be a condition prerequisite to graduation from the public and private high schools of this state.”

Washington Social Studies Learning Standards

Essential Academic Learning Requirements include one civics standard which applies to all grades K-12: “The student understands and applies knowledge of government, law, politics, and the nation’s fundamental documents to make decisions about local, national, and international issues and to demonstrate thoughtful, participatory citizenship.” (page 12)

Grade K

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • 1.1.1 Understands the key ideals of justice and fairness within the context of the classroom community.
    • 1.1.2 Applies the ideals of justice and fairness when making choices or decisions in the classroom or on the playground.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.1 Remembers the people who make and carry out rules in the classroom and school.
    • 1.2.2 Understands the purpose of rules in the classroom and school.

Grade 1

  • Component 4.1: Understands historical chronology.
    • 4.1.1 Understands and creates family timelines to show events in a sequential manner.
    • 4.4.1 Understands how knowledge of family history can be used to make current choices.
  • Component 5.2: Uses inquiry-based research.
    • 5.2.1 Understands how questions are used to find out information.
    • 5.2.2 Uses texts and visuals to identify to main ideas or key details to study family life.
  • Component 5.3: Deliberates public issues.
    • 5.3.1. Engages in discussions to learn about how families live around the world.

Grade 2

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • 1.1.1 Understands the key ideal of public or common good within the context of the community.
    • 1.1.2 Applies the key ideal of the public or common good to uphold rights and responsibilities within the context of the community.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.1 Understands the basic organization of government in the community.
    • 1.2.2 Understands the basic function of government and laws in the community.
  • Component 1.4: Understands civic involvement.
    • 1.4.1 Understands the citizenship and civic involvement in the neighborhood and community are the rights and responsibilities of individuals.

Grade 3

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • 1.1.1 Understands the key ideals of unity and diversity.

Grade 4

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • 1.1.2 Evaluates the effectiveness of a law or policy by explaining how it promotes ideals.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.1 Understands that governments are organized into local, state, tribal, and national levels.

Grade 5

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • 1.1.1 Understands the key ideals of liberty and patriotism as outlined in the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
      • Explains that the Declaration of Independence was written to declare the freedom of the thirteen colonies from Great Britain.
      • Explains how the First Amendment promotes liberty.
    • 1.1.2 Evaluates how a public issue is related to constitutional rights and the common good.
      • Justifies how a position on the issue of censorship relates to freedom of speech.
      • Justifies how a position on the phrase “under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance relates to freedom of religion.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.1 Understands the organization of the U.S. government.
      • Explains that the national government is organized in to three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
      • Explains who is involved in each of the branches of government.
      • Explains that the President and the Cabinet are part of the federal executive branch.
    • 1.2.2 Understands the function of the U.S. government.
      • Explains how the legislative branch makes laws.
      • Explains how the judicial branch judges laws according to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Component 4.1: Understands historical chronology.
    • 4.1.1 Understands and creates timelines to show how historical events are caused by other important events.
      • Constructs and explains a timeline that shows the major eras in U.S. history up to 1776.
      • Constructs a timeline that relates events involving historical, economic, geographic, and civic factors to the causes of the Revolutionary War.
    • 4.1.2 Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from time immemorial to 1791:
      • Development of indigenous societies in North America (time immemorial to 1791).
      • Encounter, colonization, and devastation (1492-1763).
      • Revolution and the Constitution (1763-1791).
  • Component 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.
    • 4.2.1 Understands and analyzes how individuals caused change in U.S. history.
    • 4.2.2 Analyzes how people from various cultural groups have shaped the history of the United States.
    • 4.2.3 Understands how technology and ideas have affected the way people lived and changed their values, beliefs, and attitudes.
      • Explains how the idea of individual rights led to the creation of the Bill of Rights.
      • Explains how the printing press was used to print the Declaration of Independence in newspapers throughout the thirteen colonies, which led to an interest in democratic movements.
      • Explains how the idea of democracy led the colonists to seek change by fighting Great Britain in the Revolutionary War.
  • Component 4.3: Understands that there are multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events.
    • 4.3.1 Analyzes the multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events in U.S. history.
    • 4.3.2 Analyzes the multiple causes of change and conflict in U.S. history.
  • Component 4.4: Uses history to understand the present and plan for the future.
    • 4.4.1 Understands that significant historical events in the United States have implications for current decisions and influence the future.
      • Explains how the principles and ideals set forth in the Constitution affect current government and citizen decisions.
  • Component 5.1: Uses critical reasoning skills to analyze and evaluate positions.
    • 5.1.1 Understands the purpose of documents and the concepts used in them.
      • Explains the purposes of the Declaration of Independence and how Thomas Jefferson used the concept of rights in this document.
      • Explains how the concept of rights outlined in the Declaration of Independence relates to a particular public issue.
      • Explains the purposes of the Constitution and how the framers of the Constitution expressed the concept of government responsibilities.
      • Explains how the concept of government responsibilities in the Constitution relates to a particular public issue.
      • Explains how the founders expressed the concept of individual rights in the Bill of Rights.
  • Component 5.2: Uses inquiry-based research.
    • 5.2.1 Understands how essential questions define the significance of researching an issue or event.
      • Explains how the essential question “Why do people want to free?” reminds us why we study the American Revolution.
      • Explains how the essential question “How can we be heard by our government?” reminds us why we study the writing of the Declaration of Independence.

Grade 6

  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.3 Understands a variety of forms of government from the past or present.
      • Compares monarchy and democracy in ancient Greece and ancient Egypt.
  • Component 1.4: Understands civic involvement.
    • 1.4.1 Understands the historical origins of civic involvement.
      • Explains how the male, property-owning citizens of ancient Athens practiced direct democracy.

Grade 8

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • Understands key ideals and principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the U.S. Constitution, including the rule of law, separation of powers, representative government, and popular sovereignty, and the Bill of Rights, including due process and freedom of expression.
      • Explains how the Declaration of Independence establishes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as goals for our nation.
      • Explains how the Constitution distinguishes popular sovereignty as a principle of our nation.
    • Evaluates efforts to reduce discrepancies between key ideals and reality in the United States, including:
      • How amendments to the Constitution have sought to extend rights to new groups.
      • How key ideals and constitutional principles set forth in fundamental documents relate to public issues.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.1 Understands and analyzes the structure and powers of government at the national level.
      • Examines Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the powers and responsibilities of the House of Representatives and Senate.
      • Examines Article 2 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the powers and responsibilities of the President and his cabinet.
      • Examines Article 3 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the responsibilities and powers of the Supreme Court.
      • Examines how the Supreme Court exercised powers outlined in Article 3 of the Constitution when ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.
      • Examines how Congress exercised powers outlined in Article 1 of the Constitution when it passed the Missouri Compromise.
      • Examines how President Jefferson used Article 2 of the Constitution to justify his role in the Louisiana Purchase.
    • 1.2.2 Evaluates the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances in the United States based on an event.
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances when President Andrew Jackson ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances when President James Polk took control of Mexican territory without a formal declaration of war.
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances in the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison.
    • 1.2.3 Understands that the U.S. government includes concepts of both a democracy and a republic.
      • Explains how the U.S. government can be considered a “constitutional democracy” because the people are the ultimate source of authority.
      • Explains how the U.S. government can be considered a “constitutional republic” because its leaders and officials are elected as representatives of the people.
  • Component 4.1: Understands historical chronology.
    • 4.1.2 Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900:
      • Fighting for independence and framing the Constitution (1776-1815).
      • Slavery, expansion, removal, and reform (1801-1850).
      • Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877).
      • Development and struggles in the West, industrialization, immigration, and urbanization (1870-1900).
  • Component 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events I history.
    • 4.2.1 Understands and analyzes how individuals and movements have shaped U.S. history (1776-1900).
      • Examines the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” on the abolitionist movement in the United States.
      • Explains the impact of the Seneca Falls Convention on the advancement of women’s rights.
      • Explains the impact of the Lowell strike on future labor movements.
    • 4.2.2 Understands and analyzes how cultures and cultural groups have contributed to U.S. history (1776-1900).
      • Explains how African cultural and religious customs influenced the culture of the U.S.
      • Explains how the Whitmans and other missionaries affected the religious and social practices of indigenous people in the United States.
    • 4.2.3 Understands and analyzes how technology and ideas have impacted U.S. history (1776- 1900).
      • Examines the effect of the cotton gin on propagating the expansion of slavery in the Southern U.S.
      • Examines how Robert Fulton’s steamship accelerated trade and westward movement in the United States.
  • Component 4.3: Understands that there are multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events.
    • 4.3.1 Analyzes and interprets historical materials from a variety of perspectives in U.S. history (1776-1900).
      • Distinguishes between conflicting views of the reasons for Southern secession.
      • Examines artifacts documenting the various ways African Americans communicated on the Underground Railroad.
    • 4.3.2 Analyzes multiple causal factors to create positions on major events in U.S. history (1776- 1900).
      • Presents a position on the causes and outcomes of the Civil War, demonstrating understanding of varying viewpoints of the conflict.
      • Presents a position on the causes and outcomes of the Mexican War, demonstrating understanding of varying viewpoints of the conflict.
  • Component 5.1: Uses critical reasoning skills to analyze and evaluate positions.
    • 5.1.1 Understands reasons based on evidence for a position on an issue or event.
      • Explains the reasons for one’s own position about the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances when Jackson ignored the Supreme Court Ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.
      • Explains the reasons for one’s own position about the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances when Congress impeached Andrew Johnson.
    • 5.1.2 Evaluates the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event.
      • Critiques the order and coherence of reasons when evaluating the effectiveness of the federal system of checks and balances during Andrew Jackson’s presidency.
      • Critiques the organization of reasons when evaluating the effectiveness of the federal system of checks and balances during the impeachment of Andrew Jackson.
  • Component 5.2: Uses inquiry-based research.
    • 5.2.1 Creates and uses research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on an issue.
      • Develops research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on how the need for national security can be balanced with the right to individual privacy.
      • Develops research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on how amendments to the Constitution have sought to extend rights to disenfranchised individuals.
  • Component 5.3: Deliberates public issues.
    • 5.3.1 Applies key ideals outlined in fundamental documents to clarify and address public issues in the context of a discussion.
      • Applies key ideals outlined in the Constitution to clarify and address positions on federal immigration policy that attempt to balance human rights with national security.
      • Applies key ideals outlined in the Constitution to clarify and address the government’s position on surveillance that attempts to preserve individual privacy while maintaining national security.
  • Component 5.4: Creates a product that uses social studies content to support a thesis and presents the product in an appropriate manner to a meaningful audience.
    • 5.4.1 Uses sources within the body of the work to support positions in a paper or presentation.
      • Uses sources within the body of the work to support one’s position on the framing of the Constitution.

Grade 11

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • Analyzes and evaluates the ways in which the U.S. Constitution and other fundamental documents promote key ideals and principles.
      • Examines how arguments made in the Federalist Papers justify the principles of limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism.
      • Critiques how well Article I of the Constitution limits Congressional powers.
      • Examines how the Preamble guides the application of the constitutional principles.
      • Examines how the Brown v. Board of Education decision promotes equality as one of the goals of our nation.
      • Examines how the Letter from a Birmingham Jail promotes equality as one of the goals of our nation.
      • Examines how the Civil Rights Act sought to extend democratic ideals.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.2 Evaluates the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances during a particular administration, court, Congress, or legislature.
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his attempts to implement New Deal policies and increase the number of Supreme Court justices.
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances during the Taft Court (1921-1930).
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances during Lyndon Johnson’s tenure as the Senate Majority Leader (1954-1961).
  • Component 4.2: Understands and analyzes causal factors that have shaped major events in history.
    • 4.2.2 Analyzes how cultures and cultural groups have shaped the United States (1890-present).
    • Examines how African Americans used the court system to influence civil rights legislation.
    • Examines how local tribes used the court system to regain their sovereign rights.
  • Component 4.3: Understands that there are multiple perspectives and interpretations of historical events.
    • 4.3.1 Analyzes differing interpretations of events in U.S. history (1890-present).
      • Develops a position after examining competing historical interpretations of the effect Malcolm X had on the Civil Rights Movement.
      • Develops a position after examining competing historical interpretations of the long-term effects of the Feminist Movement.

Grade 12

  • Component 1.1: Understands key ideals and principles of the United States, including those in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other fundamental documents.
    • Analyzes and evaluates the ways in which state and U.S. Constitutions and other fundamental documents promote key ideals and principles.
      • Critiques how well Article I of the Constitution limits Congressional powers.
      • Examines how the Preamble guides the application of the constitutional principles.
      • Examines how well the Civil Rights Act sought to extend democratic ideals.
      • Examines how the Twenty-sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution sought to extend democratic ideals.
    • Evaluates how well federal, state, and local court decisions and government policies have upheld key ideals and principles in the United States.
      • Critiques how courts and government policies have supported or failed to support civil rights.
      • Critiques how courts and government policies have supported or failed to support the constitutional right to freedom of speech.
      • Critiques how well the Supreme Court decision in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. No. 1 upheld the right to equal protection.
  • Component 1.2: Understands the purposes, organization, and function of governments, laws, and political systems.
    • 1.2.2 Evaluates the effectiveness of federalism in promoting the common good and protecting individual rights, and the system of checks and balances during a particular administration, court, Congress, or legislature.
      • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances during the Rehnquist Court (1986-2005).
      • Critiques the Patriot Act as it relates to rights established in the U.S. Constitution.
    • 1.2.3 Analyzes and evaluates the structure of state, tribal, and federal forms of governments by comparing them to those of other governments.
      • Critiques the structure of U.S. government by comparing it with that of a parliamentary government.
      • Critiques the structure of the U.S. government by comparing it with that of a constitutional government with unlimited power.
  • Component 4.4: Uses history to understand the present and plan for the future.
    • 4.4.1 Evaluates positions on a current issue based on an analysis of history.
      • Critiques different positions on the Patriot Act based on an analysis of the effects of the Alien and Sedition Acts.