West Virginia

West Virginia Administrative Code, Graduation Requirements:

W. Va. CSR §126-042 Chart IV: Graduation requirements include 4 credits in social studies, including World Studies (Grade 9) or an AP Social Studies course, United States studies (Grade 10) or an AP Social Studies course, Contemporary Studies or an AP Social Studies course, and Civics for the Next Generation or AP Government and Politics.

West Virginia Policy 2520, Content Standards:

WVBE Policy 2520: “The Social Studies Content Standards and Objectives establish the foundation of five core disciplines: citizenship, civics/government, economics, geography and history.” (page 173)

West Virginia Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives for Social Studies

Grade K

  • Civics
    • SS.K.C.1 develop an understanding of citizenship and patriotism through a variety of experiences (e.g., appropriate behavior, sharing, taking turns, volunteering, being honest and demonstrating responsibility for materials and personal belongings).
    • SS.K.C.3 investigate the need for rules in their environment, create a set of classroom rules and explore the consequences for not following the rules.
    • SS.K.C.4 investigate the leadership roles within their families, classrooms and schools and demonstrate their understanding through activities such as role play and classroom jobs.
  • History
    • SS.K.H.CL1.3 investigate the past and explore the differences in other people, time and cultures through stories of people, heroes, pictures, songs, holidays, customs, traditions or legends.

Grade 1

  • Civics
    • SS.1.C.1 model patriotism, cooperation, tolerance and respect for others within school and community.
    • SS.1.C.2 create scenarios and role play reflecting the use of rules and laws, their consequences and their value within school and community.
    • Investigate the symbols, icons and traditions of the United States that provide a sense of community across time (e.g., Labor Day, Veterans Day, Memorial Day, Pledge of Allegiance, patriotic songs, landmarks, art and literature that demonstrates community traditions, etc.).
  • History
    • SS.1.H.CL1.1 utilize primary source documents and oral accounts to investigate ways communities change throughout history.

Grade 2

  • Civics
    • SS.2.C.1 participate in volunteer service projects and examine patriotism and the traits of compassion, empathy and trustworthiness that are found in effective citizens in the community, state and nation.
    • SS.2.C.2 analyze examples of fairness of rules and laws and evaluate their consequences.
    • SS.2.C.3 illustrate the levels of government (local, state and national) and actively discuss the characteristics of effective leadership.
    • SS.2.C.5 give examples of symbols, icons and traditions of the United States, recite the Pledge of Allegiance, and participate in national celebrations (e.g., Martin Luther King Day, Presidents Day and Flag Day).
  • History
    • SS.2.H.CL1.3 explore the impact historical figures have had upon our society.

Grade 3

  • Civics
    • SS.3.C.1 identify and explain the following commonly-held American democratic values, principles and beliefs:
      • diversity
      • rule of law
      • family values
      • community service
      • justice
      • liberty
    • SS.3.C.2 determine the need for government and compare and contrast the following forms: tribal, monarchy, and democracy.
    • SS.3.C.4 examine historical conflicts and their resolutions (e.g., conflict between Native Americans and Explorers, Boston Tea Party and Civil Rights Movement).
    • SS.3.C.5 examine how rights and responsibilities of citizens are reflected in patriotic symbols, songs and holidays of the Untied States (e.g., the meaning of our flag’s colors, the Pledge of Allegiance and the meaning of the words, the National Anthem, Veteran’s Day and Memorial Day).
  • History Cluster 1: Examine the settlement of North America by Native Americans.
    • SS.3.H.CL1.4 compare and contrast the cultures of the different Native American groups (e.g., source of food, clothing, shelter and products used).
    • SS.3.H.CL1.6 analyze the Native American interactions with others (e.g., other Native American groups, explorers and settlers).
  • History Cluster 2: Determine the causes and effects of European exploration.
    • SS.3.H.CL2.1 chronologically organize major explorers and determine the reasons for their journeys (e.g., Marco Polo, Amerigo Vespucci, Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Hernando Cortes, Balboa, Ponce de Leon, Sir Walter Raleigh, etc.).
    • SS.3.H.CL2.2 investigate the motives for exploration by the various European nations (e.g., England, Spain, France, Portugal, etc.).
    • SS.3.H.CL2.3 determine the information the explorers gained from their journeys.
    • SS.3.H.CL2.4 explain how the explorers travels impacted the Native Americans and the world.

Grade 4

  • Civics
    • SS.4.C.1 identify, explain and critique commonly held American democratic values, principles and beliefs (e.g., diversity, family values, community service, justice, liberty, etc.) through established documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights, etc.).
    • SS.4.C.2 compare and contrast the powers of each branch of government and identify the responsibilities and rights of United States citizens.
    • SS.4.C.3 explore the concepts of rule of law to create a visual or oral presentation of how these concepts protect individual rights and the common good.
  • History Cluster 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the various influencing factors upon the founding of the original colonies (e.g., economic, political, cultural, etc.).
    • SS.4.H.CL1.1 analyze the southern, middle and northern colonies (e.g., origins, early government, resources, religious and cultural diversity, etc.).
  • History Cluster 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict between the American colonies and England that led to the Revolutionary War.
    • SS.4.H.CL2.1 explain the political and economic factors leading to the American Revolution (e.g., the French and Indian War, British colonial policies, and American colonists’ early resistance, etc.).
    • SS.4.H.CL2.2 explain the major ideas reflected in the Declaration of Independence.
    • SS.4.H.CL2.3 summarize the roles of the principal American, British and European leaders involved in the conflict (e.g., King George III, Ben Franklin, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, and Marquis de Lafayette, etc.).
    • SS.4.H.CL2.4 explain the contributions of the Native Americans, French and the Dutch during the Revolutionary War, and list the contributions of women and African Americans during and after the American Revolution.
  • History Cluster 3: Trace the beginnings of America as a nation and the establishment of the new government.
    • SS.4.H.CL3.1 compare and contrast the various forms of government in effect from 1774-1854 (e.g., Continental Congress, Articles of Confederation, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights, etc.).
    • SS.4.H.CL3.2 research the contributions of early American historic figures (e.g., George Washington, John Adams, Abigail Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Andrew Jackson, James Madison, Dolly Madison, etc.).
    • SS.4.H.CL3.3 explain the political, social and economic challenges faced by the new nation (e.g., development of political parties, expansion of slavery, taxation, etc.).
  • History Cluster 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of Westward Expansion.
    • SS.4.H.CL4.1 investigate the economic, political and cultural factors involved in the Westward Expansion (e.g., Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Indian Removal Act, Trial of Tears, Manifest Destiny, resources, trade, etc.).
    • SS.4.H.CL4.2 analyze the people and events that facilitated Westward Expansion (e.g., Daniel Boone, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark, Northwest Territory, Alamo, Gold Rush, etc.).

Grade 5

  • Civics
    • SS.5.C.1 illustrate the rights, responsibilities, duties and privileges of a patriotic citizen within authentic situations (e.g., election, food drive, jury duty, etc.) and defend these actions as examples or non-examples of good citizenship.
    • SS.5.C.2 assume a role (e.g., judge, juror, prosecutor, etc.) in a mock proceeding (John Brown, Dred Scott, etc.) to acquire the understanding of the trial by jury process and justify its effectiveness in solving conflicts in society both past and present.
    • SS.5.C.3 research how government and non-government groups and institutions work to meet the individual needs for the common good (e.g., Red Cross, Freedman’s Bureau, Hull House, etc.).
    • SS.5.C.4 compare the functioning of each level of the government (local, state, and national) and apply that knowledge to a function set aside for citizens of the United States (e.g., Town Hall Meeting, Project Citizen, debate, etc.).
    • SS.5.C.5 simulate the process of making a law at the state and national level.
    • SS.5.C.6 outline the process in which amendments are made; interpret their meaning, and apply it to their daily life, lives of others and lives of people throughout history.
    • SS.5.C.7 summarize the provisions of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social and economic opportunities.
  • Economics
    • SS.5.E.6 compare the industrial North and the agricultural South prior to the Civil War, the geographic characteristics and boundaries of each region and the basic way of life in each region.
    • SS.5.E.7 explain the economic problems that forced former slaves to continue to live in servitude even after slavery was officially abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment.
    • SS.5.E.8 compare the economic and social effects of Reconstruction on different populations, including the move from farms to factories and the change from the plantation system to sharecropping.
    • SS.5.E.9 explain the social and economic effects of Westward Expansion on Native Americans, including changes in federal policies, armed conflicts, opposing views concerning land ownership and Native American displacement.
  • History Cluster 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the industrial North and the agricultural South before, during and after the Civil War.
    • SS.5.H.CL1.1 research the roles and accomplishments of the leaders of the reform movements before and during the Civil War (e.g., abolition movement, Underground Railroad and other social reforms, etc.).
    • SS.5.H.CL1.2 explain how specific events and issues led to the Civil War (e.g., sectionalism fueled by issues of slavery in the territories, states’ rights, election of 1860 and secession).
    • SS.5.H.CL1.3 summarize key battles, strategies and turning points of the Civil War (e.g., Fort Sumter, Antietam, Gettysburg, other regional battles and the surrender at Appomattox).
    • SS.5.H.CL1.4 compare the roles and accomplishments of historic figures of the Civil War (e.g., Abraham Lincoln, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address, Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Clara Barton and Frederick Douglass, etc.).
    • SS.5.H.CL1.5 explain the impact of the Civil War’s physical destruction on the nation and the people (e.g., soldiers, women, African Americans, and the civilian population, etc.).
  • History Cluster 2: Examine the economic, political and social developments during Reconstruction.
    • SS.5.H.CL2.1 explain the effects of Abraham Lincoln’s assassination and the goals of Reconstruction.
    • SS.5.H.CL2.2 characterize the effects of Reconstruction on African Americans (e.g., rights and restrictions, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth Amendments, rise of discriminatory laws and groups (Ku Klux Klan), motivations to relocate, and the actions of the Freedmen’s Bureau, etc.).
  • History Cluster 3: Demonstrate an understanding of the advances in transportation and its effect on Western Expansion.
    • SS.5.H.CL3.1 illustrate how railroads affected development of the West (e.g., ease of travel, influence on trade and impact on environment, etc.).
    • SS.5.H.CL3.2 compare and contrast conflicts between various groups in the West (e.g., miners, ranchers, cowboys, Native Americans, Mexican Americans and European and Asian immigrants, etc.).

Grade 6

  • Civics
    • SS.6.C.1 apply the process of how a bill becomes a law to follow a current legislative bill.
    • SS.6.C.2 compare and contrast different forms of government worldwide and their influence on historic world events:
      • The Great Depression
      • World War I
      • World War II
      • 9/11
    • SS.6.C.3 identify the structure of the United States Congress and the Constitutional requirements of congressional membership.
    • SS.6.C.4 identify current key figures in United States government:
      • President
      • Vice President
      • Speaker of the House
      • Secretary of State
      • Current members of Congress from West Virginia
    • SS.6.C.5 examine and analyze various acts of patriotism and civil discourse in response to events throughout United States history (e.g., support of American military during wartime, Vietnam protests, Civil Rights, respect for the flag and response of Americans to 9/11).
  • History Cluster 3: Demonstrate an understanding of the causes, key events and outcomes of World War II.
    • SS.6.H.CL3.6 cite evidence of the deprivation of human rights violations during times of war.
    • SS.6.H.CL3.7 illustrate the U.S. civilian response to the war on the home-front (e.g., “Rosie the Riveters,” victory gardens, rationing, etc.).
  • History Cluster 4: Demonstrate an understanding of global developments following World War II including the impact of the Cold War on the world.
    • SS.6.H.CL4.2 outline the U.S. policy of containment and the social effects of this policy.
  • History Cluster 5: Identify the key figures, events and philosophies of the U.S. Civil Rights Movement.
    • SS.6.H.CL5.1 trace the development of Civil Rights for minority groups in the United States (e.g., women and African Americans).
    • SS.6.H.CL5.2 identify key figures and key events in movements for civil rights.
  • History Cluster 6: Demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of the world conflicts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
    • SS.6.H.CL6.3 identify the key figures in Middle Eastern conflicts and investigate the U.S. reaction to these events (e.g., Saddam, Hussein, Osama bin Laden, terrorism, 9/11, wars in Iraq and Afghanistan)

Grade 7

  • Civics
    • SS.7.C.1 classify and compare various forms of government through the Age of Imperialism (e.g., democracy, republic, absolute monarchy, constitutional monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy and parliamentary system).
    • SS.7.C.2 recognize and examine patriotism and nationalism.
    • SS.7.C.3 compare and contrast the roles, rights and responsibilities of free men, women, children, slaves and foreigners across time in various civilizations (e.g., ancient civilizations, medieval times, and nation states).
  • History Cluster 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the ancient civilizations.
    • SS.7.H.CL1.2 identify the contributions and influences of ancient civilizations and categorize the factors that led to their fall (e.g., philosophy, architecture, civics, literature, the arts, science and mathematics).
      • Mesopotamia
      • Egypt
      • Greece
      • Rome
      • India
      • China
      • Ancient civilizations of North and South America
  • History Cluster 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the Middle Ages.
    • SS.7.H.CL2.1 analyze the rise of the European nation states and monarchies (e.g., feudalism, peasants, serfs, manorial system and centralized power).
    • SS.7.H.CL2.3 discuss the preservation of the ancient Greek and Roman learning and traditions, architecture and government.
  • History Cluster 3: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact the Renaissance and Reformation had on the world.
    • SS.7.H.CL3.1 summarize the origins and contributions of the Italian Renaissance and its spread throughout Europe (e.g., art, architecture, literature and music).
    • SS.7.H.CL3.2 identify key figures, causes and events of the Reformation and the Counter Reformation.
  • History Cluster 4: Demonstrate an understanding of imperialism throughout the world.
    • SS.7.H.CL4.1 summarize the establishment of colonies in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Oceania.
    • SS.7.H.CL4.2 examine the development of triangular trade and illustrate its impact on the world.

Grade 8

  • Civics
    • SS.8.C.1 demonstrate patriotism through the planning, participation and observance of important anniversaries and remembrances (e.g., Pearl Harbor, Veterans’ Day, Constitution Day and Patriots Day).
    • SS.8.C.2 evaluate how citizens can influence and participate in government at the local, state and national levels and assume the role of an active citizen participating in the democratic process (e.g., lobbying, voting, community service, letter writing and school elections).
    • SS.8.C.3 identify, analyze and evaluate the responsibilities, privileges and rights as citizens of the state of West Virginia found in the state and national constitutions.
    • SS.8.C.4 differentiate between the division of powers and responsibilities for each of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the United States and West Virginia governments and describe the system of checks and balances.
    • SS.8.C.5 cite the elected officials at the national, state and local levels, the constitutional requirements for election and responsibilities of each office.
    • SS.8.C.7 predict the outcome of selected proposed bills in a current legislative session and assume the role of a lawmaker in a mock legislature to pass a bill into law.
    • SS.8.C.9 analyze the functions and jurisdictions of federal, state, local and special courts (e.g., United States Supreme Court, state supreme court, circuit courts, magistrate courts and family courts).
    • SS.8.C.11 compare and contrast the relationship and function of local, county, state and national government.
  • History Cluster 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the American Revolution from the beginning of the new American nation and including Western Virginia’s part in the development of that nation.
    • SS.8.H.CL2.3 summarize events related to the adoption of Virginia’s constitutional conventions, the role of western Virginia and its leaders in the Continental Congress, and the ratification of the United States Constitution.
    • SS.8.H.CL2.4 explain the economic and political tensions between the people of western and eastern Virginia including the economic struggles of both groups following the American Revolution and their disagreement over representation.
  • History Cluster 3: Demonstrate an understanding of the American Civil War including its causes, effects and the major events that led to West Virginia statehood.
    • SS.8.H.CL3.2 describe the moral, ethical and legal tensions that led to the creation of the new state of West Virginia and how these tensions were resolved (e.g., Virginia vs. West Virginia 1871).

Grade 9

  • Civics
    • SS.9.C.4 analyze and evaluate the various ways of organizing systems of government in order to illustrate the continuity and change in the role of government over time (e.g., Hammurabi’s Code, the Twelve Tables of Rome, Justinian Code, Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution).
    • SS.9.C.6 compare and contrast political ideologies in order to analyze the evolving role of government in world affairs prior to the year 1900 (e.g., democracies, republics, dictatorships, various types of monarchies, oligarchies, theocracies and parliamentary systems).
  • History Cluster 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the changes in society because of the Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration and the Enlightenment.
    • SS.9.H.CL5.2 analyze the religious reformations and their effects on theology, politics and economics.
    • SS.9.H.CL5.5 explain the ways that Enlightenment ideas spread through Europe and their effect on society (e.g., John Locke, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesqiueu).

Grade 10

  • Civics
    • SS.10.C.3 evaluate then defend the importance of the fundamental democratic values and principles of the United States constitutional democracy. Consider conflicts between individuals, communities and nations, liberty and equality, individual rights and the common good, majority rule and minority rights, and the rule of law vs. ethics (e.g., civil disobedience).
    • SS.10.C.4 define the duties of citizens that are necessary to preserve U.S. democracy (e.g., become informed and active in a democracy-through jury duty, paying taxes, public forums (local, state, and/or federal), voting and conscription).
    • SS.10.C.5 identify the issues regarding the evolution of United States citizenship and evaluate responsibilities and rights of United States citizens (e.g., landownership, race, gender and age).
  • Economics
    • SS.10.E.3 explain the ideas, values and practices in the Federalist-Anti-Federalist debate, Bank of the U.S. issue, and evaluate their effects on the formation and direction of the nation’s economy.
  • History Cluster 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the establishment of the United States as a new nation.
    • SS.10.H.CL2.1 explain the impact of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution on the American colonies and the world.
    • SS.10.H.CL2.2 explain the strengths and weaknesses of government under the Articles of Confederation.
    • SS.10.H.CL2.3 summarize events leading to the creation of the U.S. Constitution (e.g., country’s economic crisis, Shay’s Rebellion and purpose outlined in the Preamble).
    • SS.10.H.CL2.4 explain fundamental principles and purposes of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights (e.g., through the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, colonial charters and the political philosophies of the Enlightenment).
    • SS.10.H.CL2.5 trace the emergence of the American two party political system (Federalists- Anti-Federalists, election of 1800, etc.).
    • SS.10.H.CL2.6 compare and contrast the position of the political parties and leaders on a variety of issues (e.g., economic development, territorial expansion, political participation, individual rights, states’ rights, slavery and social reforms).
    • SS.10.H.CL2.7 analyze the impact of United States Supreme Court decisions (e.g., Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Dred Scott v. Stanford and Plessy v. Ferguson).
  • History Cluster 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the causes and the course of the Civil War and Reconstruction in America.
    • SS.10.H.CL4.2 explain how the political events and issues that divided the nation led to civil war (e.g., compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, successes and failures of the abolitionist movement, conflicting views on states’ rights and federal authority, emergence of the Republican Party and election of 1860).
    • SS.10.H.CL4.5 evaluate effects of Reconstruction on the nation (e.g., roles of the Civil War Amendments, Radical Republicans, etc.).
    • SS.10.H.CL4.6 summarize the progress and impact made by various groups in society (including African-Americans, women, immigrants, etc.) during Reconstruction.
    • SS.10.H.CL4.7 trace societal changes in the United States brought about by the end of Reconstruction (the Freedmen’s Bureau, educational reform, political opportunity, new trends in legislation, Jim Crow laws and the rise of anti-African American factions).
  • History Cluster 5: Demonstrate an understanding of changes that took place at the end of the 19th Century in the United States.
    • SS.10.H.CL5.4 examine and identify the goals and accomplishments of reformers and reform movements (e.g., women’s rights, minorities, temperance, prisons, hospitals, schools, etc.).

Grade 11

  • Civics
    • SS.11.C.3 evaluate court cases essential to fundamental democratic principles and values (e.g., amendments since 1920, Brown v. BOE Topeka, Miranda v. Arizona, Roe v. Wade and the P.A.T.R.I.O.T. Act).
    • SS.11.C.4 evaluate, then defend the importance of the fundamental democratic values and principles of United States constitutional democracy in a global context including conflicts between individuals, communities and nations.
      • liberty and equality
      • individual rights and the common good
      • majority rule and minority rights
      • Rule of Law and ethics (e.g., civil disobedience)
      • patriotism
  • History Cluster 2: Demonstrate an understanding of society in the Roaring 20’s by examining the changing cultural, economic, political philosophies and the ensuing consequences.
    • SS.11.H.CL2.3 research the social issues that led to the passage of the 18th Amendment, establishment of Prohibition, and discuss the factors that led to its repeal by the 21st Amendment (e.g., organized crime, Great Depression and changing social values).
  • History Cluster 6: Demonstrate an understanding of the origins, struggle and progression of racial minorities seeking social, economic and political equality in the United States.
    • SS.11.H.CL6.1 examine and identify the foundations of the Civil Rights Movement through the documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, etc.) and Supreme Court decisions (e.g., Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. BOE Topeka).
    • SS.11.H.CL6.4 design a timeline of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States that includes key people, places and events.
  • History Cluster 9: Demonstrate an understanding of America’s continued role in shaping the complex global community since September 11, 2001.
    • SS.11.H.CL9.2 outline provisions of the P.A.T.R.I.O.T. Act (Providing Appropriate Tools Required (to) Intercept (and) Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001) and assess the necessity of such infringements on American civil rights.

Grade 12

  • Civics
    • SS.12.C.2 explore social contracts, the establishment of rule of law, and evaluate how limited government and rule of law protect individual rights.
    • SS.12.C.3 demonstrate that the purpose of American government is the protection of personal, political and economic rights of citizens as evidenced by the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, Constitutional Amendments and the ideas of those involved in the establishment of American government.
    • SS.12.C.4 consider factors that subvert liberty which include lack of education, voter apathy, disenfranchisement, civil inequalities, economic issues, loss of public trust and misuse of government power to collaborate, compromise and reach a consensus that informed citizens can use to defend and perpetuate the American Republic.
    • SS.12.C.5 examine and analyze the contributing factors of the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution:
      • leaders and philosophers (e.g., John Locke, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams)
      • events (e.g., Glorious Revolution, Reformation and Enlightenment)
      • documents (e.g., English Bill of Rights, Petition of Right and Magna Carta)
      • classical periods (e.g., eras of Greece and Rome)
      • principles (e.g., popular sovereignty, federalism, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, civil liberties and rule of law)
    • SS.12.C.6 examine the compromises of the Constitutional Convention and how those decisions were characterized in the Federalist and the Anti-Federalists papers.
    • SS.12.C.7 evaluate the processes within the United States Constitution that make it a living document with democratic principles that are modified and expanded to meet the changing needs of society.
    • SS.12.C.8 investigate the system of government created by the Preamble, Seven Articles, and the Bill of Rights and other Amendments of the United States Constitution to evaluate how the framework for American society is provided.
    • SS.12.C.9 analyze how the Constitution defines federalism and outlines a structure for the United States government.
    • SS.12.C.10 analyze the protection of liberties in the Bill of Rights and their expansion through judicial review and gradual incorporation of those rights by the Fourteenth Amendment.
    • SS.12.C.11 analyze how the freedoms of speech and press in a democratic society enable citizens to develop informed opinions, express their views, shape public policy and monitor government actions.
    • SS.12.C.12 determine how conflicts between the rights of citizens and society’s need for order can be resolved while preserving both liberty and safety.
    • SS.12.C.13 examine the committee process to evaluate how a bill becomes law on the national and state levels and track a bill through the legislative process.
    • SS.12.C.14 develop an awareness of the purpose and scope of governmental agencies while exploring the interchange between legislative bodies, interest groups and the bureaucracy in American government.
    • SS.12.C.15 determine the roles, powers and obligations of the President of the United States and synthesize how various presidents have expanded the role of the presidency, both in America and the world.
    • SS.12.C.16 compare and contrast the original and appellate jurisdiction of local, state and national judicial systems to show how America’s court system addresses criminal and civil cases.
    • SS.12.C.17 apply the concepts of legal precedent through past and present landmark Supreme Court cases, interpretations of the Constitution by the Supreme Court and the impact of these decisions on American society.
    • SS.12.C.18 develop an understanding of the American legal system through examining existing ordinances, statues and Federal Acts, exploring the differences between criminal and civil law and determining legal obligations and liabilities of American citizenship.
    • SS.12.C.19 critique the evolution of the two-party system in the United States, evaluate how society and political parties have changed over time and analyze how political parties function today.
    • SS.12.C.25 compare and contrast the values, ideals and principles that are the foundation of a democratic republic and the role citizens play in a constitutional democracy to the theories and practices of non-democratic governments (e.g., socialism found in communism and nationalism found in fascism).